KC Johnson

History 3442 Lecture/PP

3442–bushPP

History 3442

Politics & Policy in the Bush Years

25 December 2014

 

  1. Aftermath of 2000
  2. The Original Bush Agenda (attempts at bipartisanship—cabinet possibilities, Lott/Daschle agreement; “compassionate conservativism”: Office of Faith-based Programs; No Child Left Behind & wooing of Kennedy; but also: 2001 tax cut, dismissal of deficit; Jeffords defection & change of Senate party control)
  3. 9/11 and Beyond (the administration and Al-Qaeda; international response: Afghanistan; domestic response: Patriot Act; bureaucratic response: “unitary executive” theory, expansion of Cheney’s power; Homeland Security Department debate; GOP midterm gains; political hardball: Texas redistricting; Medicare Part D—prescription drugs and policy implications, aging of GOP and political implications; “Mission Accomplished,” but also growing controversy over Iraq: Rumsfeld and Baghdad looting, revelation of Abu Ghraib, 9/11 Commission)
  4. Challenging Bush (Dean’s emergence—message, technology, big endorsements; Kerry electability and “Dean Scream”; upbeat message: Edwards, veteran, emergence of Obama; GOP response: attacking Kerry’s strengths: veterans and SwiftBoat attacks; Rove: gay marriage constitutional amendments and maximizing Christian conservative turnout—importance of Ohio, keeping Kerry on defensive—flip-flops, stress on terrorism; outcome—“moral values,” education, religion; Senate races—GOP Southern sweep, long-term significance)

 

  1. Political Capital & Its Limits
  2. Redefining the Court (Roberts—background, “balls and strikes” metaphor, broad support; Bush and Miers nomination—weak credentials, ideological concerns, conservative revolt; Alito—GOP overcomes filibuster, shifting Court to right, long-term impact)
  3. Struggles (privatizing Social Security?—congressional resistance and indifference; Iraq and credibility problems; Katrina and questions of Bush competence; Fitzgerald investigation—Libby indictment, Rove inquiry, Bush shifting responses; Schiavo case: religious activism, special congressional session, Frist “diagnosis,” legislationàpublic reaction; ethics scandals: indictment & resignation of DeLay; 2006 midterm elections—Democrats take both House & Senate)
  4. Polarization & Crisis (Rumsfeld resignation; Gates, surge, and political deemphasis of Iraq; paralyzed Congress: House polarization—demise of GOP moderates, conservatives and lessons of Bush difficulties, Pelosi and aggressive conception of Speaker’s power; Senate: changing nature of filibuster, changing culture of Senate; economic crisis and TARP vote—Paulson as point man, opposition of House Republicans, package passed)

3442–impeachment, 2000PP

 

History 3442

Politics & Policy in the Clinton Years

18 November 2014

 

  1. The Clinton Agenda
  2. Victory (the Perot movement: background in POW, education movement; obsession with deficit, term limits & businessman’s “can-do” appeal; but alsoàlibertarian approach to social issues; polling lead; erratic personality and withdrawal from race—effect on Clinton’s standing; new Democrats and economy; Bush as out of touch?; Perot re-entry, Clinton victory; “Year of the Woman”)
  3. Clinton’s Struggles (early pseudo-scandals: file-gate, travel-gate, Vince Foster, Whitewater—determination of Clinton opponents and appointment of special prosecutor; policy stumbles: gays in the military—Clinton and 1992 campaign, fluid nature of public opinion [polling data, but Amendment 2], Nunn/Powell counterattack [use of media, Clinton & military]; Clinton 1993 budget: Bentsen, Rubin, and stress on deficit, Clinton abandons tax promise, GOP opposition; House vote and Triple-M; Senate vote and GOP opposition)
  4. Republican Revolution (health-care debacle: role of First Lady, tensions with Congress and within Democratic coalition, insurance companies and GOP opposition, collapse of planàimage of Democratic incompetence; Gingrich and Contract with America—nationalizing the election, effective use of talking points; demolition of Democrats—Republicans win both houses of Congress, gubernatorial sweep, Prop 187; structural and political reasons for victory; but Kennedy survives)

 

  1. The Clinton Comeback
  2. Implementing the Revolution (Gingrich agenda: maximizing the Speaker’s power, targeting government spending, weakening regulation; non-implementation—term limits, balanced budget amendment; overreach: far-right members, backlash against militia movement; decision to shut down government and backlash; exaggerated congressional investigations—D’Amato, Burton)
  3. Triangulation (economic recovery: GDP, deficit, jobs, inflation—how much did Clinton deserve credit?; Morris/Penn: appealing to center, small initiatives (soccer moms, etc.), aggressive fundraising; triangulation: economic issues—welfare reform, social issues—DOMA; limitations of victory: Dole weaknesses, minor gains in House, losses in Senate, passage of Prop 209)

 

3442–clintonIPP

History 3442

Politics & Policy in the Clinton Years

18 November 2014

 

  1. The Clinton Agenda
  2. Victory (the Perot movement: background in POW, education movement; obsession with deficit, term limits & businessman’s “can-do” appeal; but alsoàlibertarian approach to social issues; polling lead; erratic personality and withdrawal from race—effect on Clinton’s standing; new Democrats and economy; Bush as out of touch?; Perot re-entry, Clinton victory; “Year of the Woman”)
  3. Clinton’s Struggles (early pseudo-scandals: file-gate, travel-gate, Vince Foster, Whitewater—determination of Clinton opponents and appointment of special prosecutor; policy stumbles: gays in the military—Clinton and 1992 campaign, fluid nature of public opinion [polling data, but Amendment 2], Nunn/Powell counterattack [use of media, Clinton & military]; Clinton 1993 budget: Bentsen, Rubin, and stress on deficit, Clinton abandons tax promise, GOP opposition; House vote and Triple-M; Senate vote and GOP opposition)
  4. Republican Revolution (health-care debacle: role of First Lady, tensions with Congress and within Democratic coalition, insurance companies and GOP opposition, collapse of planàimage of Democratic incompetence; Gingrich and Contract with America—nationalizing the election, effective use of talking points; demolition of Democrats—Republicans win both houses of Congress, gubernatorial sweep, Prop 187; structural and political reasons for victory; but Kennedy survives)

 

  1. The Clinton Comeback
  2. Implementing the Revolution (Gingrich agenda: maximizing the Speaker’s power, targeting government spending, weakening regulation; non-implementation—term limits, balanced budget amendment; overreach: far-right members, backlash against militia movement; decision to shut down government and backlash; exaggerated congressional investigations—D’Amato, Burton)
  3. Triangulation (economic recovery: GDP, deficit, jobs, inflation—how much did Clinton deserve credit?; Morris/Penn: appealing to center, small initiatives (soccer moms, etc.), aggressive fundraising; triangulation: economic issues—welfare reform, social issues—DOMA; limitations of victory: Dole weaknesses, minor gains in House, losses in Senate, passage of Prop 209)

3442–late 80sPP

History 3442

The End of the Cold War & U.S. Politics

13 November 2014

 

  1. From Reagan to Bush

 

  1. From 1984 to 1988 (Reagan’s 2nd-term struggles: protracted debate over contra aid, 1986 Senate setback, Iran-contra affair, Bork rejection, S&L scandal, Black Monday; but alsoàend Cold War; Democratic challenge—Gore weakness, Jackson long-term significance, Dukakis and “Massachusetts Miracle”; Bush: continuity & changeà”1000 points of light,” but also Atwater, race-baiting & crime; debate disasters; Bush victory)
  2. Bush’s Rise & Fall (international affairs background, series of triumphs: Panama, end of Soviet EE empire, creation of broad anti-Iraq alliance; technocratic agenda domesticallyàbipartisanship and passage of ADA, Darman & deficit, path to budget deal, conservative revolt; Iraq war victory, but continued internal difficultiesàThomas confirmation, Los Angeles riots, slight economic downturn; Buchanan challenge)

 

  1. 1992
  2. Clinton’s Emergence (Bush approval ratings—strong Democrats bow out, Bentsen, Gore, Cuomo; Clinton, DLC, but personal scandals; Tsongas campaign—deficit, truth-telling, but alsoàcampaign difficulties, Clinton comeback; 1992 convention & nomination of Gore)
  3. The Campaign (the Perot movement: background in POW, education movement; obsession with deficit, term limits & businessman’s “can-do” appeal; but alsoàlibertarian approach to social issues; polling lead; erratic personality and withdrawal from race—effect on Clinton’s standing; new Democrats and economy; Bush as out of touch?; Perot re-entry, Clinton victory; “Year of the Woman”)

 

3442–Reagan PP

History 3442

The Reagan Era

11 November 2014

 

  1. Challenging Liberalism
  2. The Reagan Agenda:

[1]defense spending: Weinberger, 1980 campaign promises, bipartisan support, continuing Carter agenda, aggressive anti-communist rhetoric—“Reagan Doctrine”;

[2] tax cuts: implementing the Laffer Curve: Kemp-Roth tax cut, lowering personal income rates in all brackets, indexing tax rates, lowering windfall profits taxes, IRA’s;

[3] Reagan budget cuts: reallocating federal spending—boosting defense spending, cutting social programs; assassination attempt and altered political environment; role of “Boll Weevils” in passage—Gramm, Hance;

[4] unintended consequences: compromises with Democratic House—“education of David Stockman”; growth of deficit

  1. The Economic Record (short-term difficulties: “Reagan recession”—continued high interest rate, unemployment growth; 1982 electionsàbut also broader demographic patterns & growth of “Sunbelt”; economic gains—gradual decline of inflation, jobs growth, political pragmatism and willingness to tackle deficit—1983 Social Security, 1984 deficit reduction packageàbut deficit problems remain)
  2. Challenging the Administrative State (PATCO & confrontation with labor unions [coal war and British counterpart]; Donovan and Labor Department; continued appeals to union voters; implementing the Sagebrush Rebellion— Watt and Interior, Gorsuch and EPA; Reagan personal appeal as mitigating factor)

 

  1. The Limits of the Reagan Revolution
  2. Challenging Rights-Related Liberalism (Reagan and race: growth of Southern Republican Party, racialized appeals?—“welfare queens,” “law and order,” Thomas and EEOC; Reagan and social issues: role of religious right, opposition to gay rights; importance of judicial appointments—Meese, Federalist Society, but also Sandra Day O’Connor; limitations—public opinion and abortion, political need for Democratic support)
  3. 1984 and the Democratic Collapse (Kennedy withdrawal and Mondale as frontrunner: Democrats as party of special interest groups; Hart, “New Ideas,” and emergence of “Atari Democrats”; Mondale counterattack and narrow victory; Ferraro selection and reaction—difficulties with husband’s taxes; Reagan and uplifting campaign; debate stumble and comeback; limitations—narrow House gains; Democratic Senate gains—Gore, Simon, Harkin, election of Kerry; butàRepublican gains in the South: Helms-Hunt, McConnell)

History 3442

The 1980 Elections

6 November 2014

3442–1980PP

 

Liberalism’s Demise

 

  1. Foreign Policy Weakness (Iran turmoil & emergence of Khomeini; intelligence breakdown & taking of hostages; initial rallying around flag but long-term sense of impotenceàfailure of hostage rescue mission; Kennedy decline and resurgence; Kennedy New York speech and Democratic disarray)
  2. Rise of the Conservatives (the also-rans: Connally and limitations of Southern GOP, Baker and limitations of Southern legislating; Anderson and demise of GOP liberalism; Bush background; Iowa upset and “big mo”; Reagan revival—debates about debate; Anderson, Bush, and New England; Southern sweep and Reagan nomination; continued concerns and Ford co-presidency plan; nomination of Bush; changes in Republican platformàno support for ERA, call for pro-life amendment)

 

  1. The Reagan Realignment

 

  1. Conditions (international rise of conservatives: significance of Thatcher triumph—model for Reagan?; continued international crises—Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Carter decision to boycott Olympics; continued economic difficultiesàeffects of Volcker economics, rising unemployment)
  2. Fall Campaign (Anderson/Lucey and Carter’s difficulty on the left; Reagan and Southern Strategyàopening campaign in Mississippi; Reagan and appeals to patriotismàstrong defense, anti-communism, economic plan through tax cuts; Carter scare tactics; effects of final debate)
  3. The Demise of the Democratic Senate (NCPAC and challenge to Democratic liberals; national security and Church/Symms; excessive spending and campaign against Magnuson; weak Southern Democrats; fall of Midwestern Democrats: McGovern, Bayh, and Nelson; Carter’s early concession and Republican House gains; was 1980 a realigning election: importance of “Reagan Democrats”—Macomb County: from 63 percent for JFK to 66 percent for Reagan)

History 3442

Rise of the Right

6 November 2014

3442–late 70sPP

 

  1. The Emergence of Modern Conservatism
  2. Collapse of the Economy (1976 as mandate-free election: House contests as status quo; major turnover in Senate elections; Carter & Congress; troubles with staff and Washington culture—Bert Lance scandal; energy bill fiasco: what is Carter’s domestic agenda?; economic difficulties in Rust Belt—steel, auto industries; Iranian revolution and second oil shock: inflation, unemployment, deficità”stagflation,” strengthening of Fed, importance of Volcker)
  3. Economic Issues (inflation, property taxes, and the origins of the tax revolt; California and Proposition 13: effects of inflation, assessors’ scandals, backlash against Supreme Court school-funding rulings; Jarvis, Gann, and the initiative; opposition of state Democratic Party, public sector unions; Massachusetts: Barbara Anderson and Citizens for Limited Taxation, revolt against liberalism?, final outcome; long-term effects of 13 and 2½: increasing reliance on state aid, shortcomings in education finding, disparate evaluations for property tax in some states; Laffer curve and solidifying the anti-tax ideology; Sagebrush Rebellion and Western libertarianism; beginnings of right-wing public interest law)
  4. Social Issues (school prayer, abortion, gay rights; importance of religion: Southern evangelicalism and politics—aftermath of Scopes trial, re-emergence in aftermath of Engel, Carter and normalization of religion in politics, Robertson and 700 Club, Falwell and Moral Majority, alliance with Republican Party; Catholic voters—importance of abortion, 1978 midterm results, election of Pope John Paul and conservative turn among bishops; class divisions—using referenda for goals: Bryant, Briggs Initiative; formation of NCPAC & 1978 Senate results)

 

 

History 3442

Reform & Rights-Related Liberalism

30 October 2014

3442–mid70sPP

 

 

  1. The Watergate Class
  2. The Congressional Era (1972 Senate elections: polarization & emergence of Southern GOP—importance of Helms; Class of ’72 and Senate liberals; Watergate hearings & emergence of Drinan, Jordan; 1974 midterm elections)
  3. The New Congressional Agenda (common nature of districts—suburban, more upper-class, long-time traditionally Republican; environmentalism, human rights, good-government activism [sunlight/sunset laws, transparency, campaign finance], feminism, peace activism, institutional change: checking committee chairs, giving junior members more power—removal of Hébert; creation of budget committee, CBO; challenging executive authority: CIA, covert actions, path to special counsel law)

 

  1. Limits of Reform
  2. Economic Issues (1973 oil shock and economic effects: burst of inflation, Ford difficulties in determining response; gas shortages, effect on Rust Belt industries, beginnings of unemployment increases; inflation & ineffectual Ford response; divisions within Democratic caucus, lack of interest?)
  3. Social Issues & Catholic Revolt (busing: J. Arthur Garrity and Boston School system; South Boston and emergence of Louise Day Hicks; national attention and questions about Democratic coalition; abortion: reaction to Roe, path to Hyde amendment; ERA: quick state ratifications, emergence of conservative religious coalition [Catholics, Mormons, evangelical Protestants]; Schlafly and public response—military, protection of women in labor, class divisions; gay rights and Baker decision)

 

III. The 1976 Election

  1. The Primaries (indecision among frontrunners; Carter and anti-Washington outsider; new Democratic calendar and Iowa caucuses; piggyback victory to New Hampshireàmomentum; Church/Brown late entries; Carter faltering; Republicans: Ford early triumphs; Reagan, Helms, and North Carolina revival, emergence of “Sunbelt,” backfiring of Schweicker gamble)
  2. The General Election (Carter initial lead; difficulty in articulating agenda; Ford late surge; debate soundbites—Dole and “Democrat wars,” Ford and Poland; mandate-free victory?; congressional elections)

 

 

 

 

History 3442

Watergate

28 October 2014

 

3442–watergatePP

  1. Before the Re-Election

 

  1. Nixon and Political Ethics (culture war and politics; memories of 1960 and Nixon political culture; origins of “plumbers”—Ellsberg break-in, targeting of Brookings Institution; ethical improprieties in 1972 campaign—CREEP & abuse of IRS, infiltration of Democratic candidacies)
  2. Crime & Consequences (CREEP and bugging of DNC headquarters—preoccupation with Kennedy machine; Nixon attempts to obstruct justice—role of CIA, Pat Gray and leaderless FBI, significance of Mark Felt; Watergate in 1972 campaign—ineffective McGovern attacks, Woodward and Bernstein on the case, but disputes at Washington Post, Wright Patman inquiry but bipartisan opposition)

 

  1. Nixon’s Demise

 

  1. The Cover-up Unravels (why didn’t Watergate die?; lower-level judiciary: importance of Sirica and role of plea bargains; press—role of Woodward/Bernstein, Felt’s agenda, and development of public pressure; Nixon’s erratic response—Ehrlichman/Haldeman/Kleindeinst “resignations,” Dean dismissal; Senate—Sam Ervin and role of special Senate committee—importance of national TV, revelation of taping system; special prosecutor—Cox’s agenda; Nixon response: invocation of executive privilege)
  2. The Twin Blows (the travails of Spiro Agnew: Maryland politics and culture of corruption, state’s attorney investigation, plea bargain and resignation; Cox and decision to subpoena tapes; Nixon evasion—Saturday Night Massacre; public reaction)
  3. The Fall of Nixon (18½ minute gap; House Judiciary Committee and impeachment hearings—significance of Rodino, emergence of Jordan, Drinan; U.S. v. Nixon and Nixon’s resignation; Ford’s decision to pardon)

 

History 3442

The 1968 Election

14 October 2014

3442–1968PP

  1. LBJ’s Decline
  2. Continuing Political Difficulties (polling problems; economic effects of guns & butter strategy—growing federal spending & borrowing, emergence of inflation problem, decision for tax surcharge)
  3. A Challenger Emerges (Allard Lowenstein and search for a candidate; lobbying RFK; moral and tactical argument—favorable campaign calendar, opening to Daley?; RFK temporizes, decides not to run; McGovern, Church decline; drafting of McCarthy—unusual nature of “anti-war” candidate; LBJ’s political strengths)
  4. Tet & New Hampshire (Tet and emergence of “credibility gap”; importance of media response; what constitutes victory?; “clean for Gene” and McCarthy concentration on NH; LBJ stand-in strategy and shortcomings of Gov. King; McCarthy’s NH “victory”; who were McCarthy’s voters?; RFK decision to enter; LBJ withdrawal)

 

  1. The Democratic Race
  2. The Kennedy Campaign (RFK’s evolving image—African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans; the Kennedy coalition & appeal to ethnic Democrats, some party leaders; string of primary victories and McCarthy bitterness; Humphrey attempts to rally party activists; Oregon and McCarthy revival; California and RFK assassination; what if?)
  3. The Chicago Convention (Ted Kennedy’s decision not to run; McGovern’s late entrance; McCarthy collapse; Humphrey and “politics of joy”; disruptive tactics and Daley over-reaction; convention chaos; Humphrey polling collapse)

 

III. Realignment and the Fall Campaign

  1. Setting the Agenda (Nixon’s comeback: support among Republican officeholders, Romney faux pas, Rockefeller& Reagan seen as too extreme, nomination of Agnew; “silent majority” and “Southern Strategy”: role of Buchanan and Phillips; Wallace and creating the AIP; setting the agenda: right-wing populism, anti-elitism, crime, affirmative action, nationalism; polling surge: could Wallace pass Humphrey?; Nixon as more moderate alternative?)
  2. The Outcome (Humphrey revival: Salt Lake City speech, Muskie appeal, consolidating the shrunken Democratic base; Wallace ceiling: third-party dilemma, LeMay nomination and “Bombsey Twins”; Nixon’s Rose-Garden strategy; Paris Peace breakthrough and Humphrey revival?; murky Nixon involvement; possibility of race to House of Reps.; Nixon victory and deceptively close nature of vote)

History 3442

The Demise of the New Deal Coalition

9 October 2014

3442–lbj4PP

  1. LBJ & Vietnam

 

  1. Dilemmas of Limited War (South Vietnamese political instability and LBJ decision to Americanize the conflict; tensions in military strategy—bombing campaign, McNamara, Westmoreland, and “body count,” consistent PRC threat; draft and expansion of U.S. troops)
  2. Politics of War (Republicans and the war—criticism from the right, unleash the military; Senate spectrum of opinion & LBJ parliamentary tactics: military appropriations and the dilemmas of dissent; Democratic divisions—liberals and bombing (Church, McGovern, Nelson, then Kennedy), Fulbright hearings, LBJ and consolidating pro-war Democrats)

 

  1. The Backlash Develops

 

  1. Housing (housing and the public accommodations debate—red-lining in Northern cities; 1964 California: origins of Rumford Act; California Real Estate Association and path to Proposition 14; Prop 14 vote and fate of Salinger, LBJ vote; 1966 Maryland: legacy of Wallace campaign & Dixiecrat base on Eastern Shore, Baltimore and ethnic politics; emergence of George Mahoney—relationship with Catholic diocese, business & trade union backgroundà”Your Home Is Your Castle—Protect It,” Agnew victory; Chicago, New York difficulties)
  2. Urban Riots (race, class, and police—New York City riots 1964, LBJ response; Watts and American national consciousness; string of riots; emergence of “law and order” issueàconservative critique of Warren Court [Mapp, Miranda, but also Heart of Atlanta Motel], links to LBJ through Fortas and Marshall, crime and race)
  3. The Collapse of Cold War Liberalism (1966 midterms, role of Nixon; MLK and carrying campaign to the North; student movement and LBJ response; role of Hoover; MLK and the war; public reaction against LBJ—economic difficulties of “guns and butter” strategy)

 

 

History 3442

LBJ, Vietnam, & the Great Society

7 October 2014

3442–lbj65-6PP

  1. Emergence of Vietnam

 

  1. Background (World War II; siding with French; Eisenhower & Geneva Accords—emergence of Diem, massive economic aid, creation of NLF; Kennedy & counterinsurgency; onset of strategic hamlet program & diplomatic difficulties with Diem; deteriorating conditions & decision to appoint Lodge; contradictions: what was JFK’s 1963 policy—de-escalation or increased involvement?; coup and Americanization of war)
  2. LBJ’s First Year (domestic politics & basic requirements: deteriorating military conditions& LBJ disinclination to bring issue to public; Lodge and covert escalation; Goldwater foreign policy and evolution of conservative approach to international affair—path to Tonkin Gulf Resolution; LBJ anger at Morse & Gruening; Foreman critique; nuclear policy and campaign; agenda for peace?)

 

  1. The Great Society

 

  1. LBJ & the 89th Congress (completing the civil rights agenda—Voting Rights Act of 1965 [abolish literacy tests, directed poll tax challenge, Section 5 & preclearance]; expanding the New Deal—Medicare, Medicaid and the path to national health insurance, conservative opposition and concerns about “socialized medicine,” passage of bill)
  2. Expanding the Great Society (Model Cities & expanding urban aid—importance of mayors to Democratic coalition; ESEA & strengthening of federal role in public education; creation of NEH and NEAàNortheastern liberals; Lady Bird and Beautification Act—billboards, wildflowers, origins of mainstream environmentalism)

 

 

History 3442

The 1964 Election

2 October 2014

3442-lbj64PP

  1. The Foundations
  2. The Republican Race (the race before assassination; Goldwater and Rockefeller weaknesses; changed nature after the assassination; Nixon, Scranton bids?, Smith declares candidacy; the emergence of Lodge; New Hampshire primary & administration response; Lodge, Goldwater, and contrasting nomination strategies; essence of Lodge appeal; Oregon and Lodge collapse; California primary and death of GOP moderates; Goldwater nomination and 1964 convention)
  3. LBJ Strengths & Weaknesses (potential pitfalls: ethics—“Landslide Lyndon,” personal wealth, Bobby Baker scandal, John Williams; racial backlash: emergence of George Wallace—Indiana and Wisconsin primaries, appeal among Northern ethnics, Maryland primary and Democratic weakness, Wallace and alliance with Goldwater?; Kennedy and vice presidency: background of relationship, RFK and Justice Department; open pressure and LBJ response; decision to exclude; uncertainty over V-P nomination)

 

  1. The Outcome
  2. The Frontlash Agenda (LBJ hopes and targeted constituencies; liberals and the 1964 convention—controversy over the Tuck bill; consolidating the civil rights base—MFDP controversy and the convention; choosing a vice-presidential nominee; neutralizing Goldwater— Tonkin Gulf Resolution, nuclear weapons, election as mandate for peace agenda; economics and how to tailor a Democratic agenda?; limitations of the frontlash approach—“LBJ for the USA,” reliance on negative advertising)
  3. The Jenkins Scandal (polls and LBJ vulnerabilities; Baker/McCloskey affair; arrest and reaction—role of Fortas; Lady Bird response; Hoover and continuing fears; election outcome—coattails and transformation of House; ideology and a hollow victory?)

 

Totals: LBJ:                  61% popular vote        486 electoral votes

Goldwater:      38.5% popular vote     52 electoral votes

 

 

History 3442

LBJ Takes Charge

30 Sept. 2014

3442–LBJ1–PP

 

  1. Transition to LBJ

 

  1. King & Civil Rights (Birmingham and Operation “C”; role of Bull Connor; sit-ins, boycott, arrest of King; controversy over women and children protesters; public and media response)

 

  1. Road to the Civil Rights Act (King and origins of March on Washington; tensions within the movement—generational, ideological, racial, church bombing; success of the March; bill’s focus on public accommodations; indecision about tactics; continued legislative obstacles; Kennedy legacy?)

 

  1. Assassination and Aftermath (LBJ background; LBJ as political tactician; appointment of Warren Commission and effort to heal nation; LBJ & adjourning politics; defining success as passage of legislation)

 

 

  1. Establishing an Image

 

  1. Politics and Policy (taking charge with the tax bill—lobbying Byrd, lobbying business, moving beyond Democrats as tax-and-spend liberals, deficits and long-term implications: “guns and butter” debate; poverty and Shriver appointment—vagueness of agenda, Michigan “great society” speech; farm bill and cynical politics—lobbying Cooley, appealing to wheat state senators, food stamp program and long-term effects of bill; overall legislative record)

 

  1. Civil Rights Act of 1964 (LBJ & the Southern caucusàimportance of Richard Russell; focus on public accommodations; indecision about tactics; indecision about constitutional justification; provisions: outlaw racial discrimination in public accommodations, give Justice Dept. authority to file suits for school desegregation in federal court, create EEOC)

History 3442

The Kennedy Agenda

18 Sept. 2014

3442–jfkpp

  1. Foreign & Domestic

 

  1. Domestic Frustrations (inauguration atmosphere; practical difficulties of limited mandate; Smith & Rules Committee expansion, gradual liberalization of House; O’Neill/Delaney & Catholic Churchàdifficulties of education bill; Wilbur Mills, deficit concerns, and slow-walking tax bill)
  2. Kennedy and the Cold War (Kennedy’s international agenda—“missile gap,” counterinsurgency, confronting Soviets and Chinese in the Third World; Cuba, Castro, and the 1960 campaign; origins of Bay of Pigs invasion; MONGOOSE and aftermath; Berlin and East-West tensions: nature of East German state, problems of migration and Khrushchev threats, nuclear confrontation?; Vienna summit and crisis atmosphere; building of Berlin Wallàlong-term effects)
  3. “Corporate Liberalism” (Kennedy and Keynes—origins of tax-cut proposal; two-stage process and economic effects; Comsat and limitations of populist rhetoric; difficulties with Congress and limitations for Kennedy agenda; preparing for 1964 election)

 

  1. Kennedy and Civil Rights

 

  1. Crisis Results (expansion of military budget; increasing U.S. military commitment in Vietnam; 2 PHOTOS origins of Cuban Missile Crisis; ExComm and resolution of crisis; Cuba and political matters—election of 1962 & renewed mandate?)
  2. Up to Speed (Court action and its limits; executive initiative; Kennedy record and political concerns—nature of 1960s Democratic Party [Eastland as example], backtracking on promise to desegregate public housing; significance of bureaucracy—Wofford, Marshall, power of Justice Department, transformation of RFK; forcing the issue—CORE, Freedom Rides, and role of federal marshals)
  3. Crises (Meredith and integration of Ole Miss—administration response, national and international reaction; NAACP and Civil Rights Division support; riots and federal military intervention; Wallace and demagoguery—Integrating the University of Alabama; political costs; Birmingham and Operation “C”; role of Bull Connor; sit-ins, boycott, arrest of King; controversy over women and children protesters; church combing; public and media response)
  4. Road to the Civil Rights Act (King and origins of March on Washington; tensions within the movement—generational, ideological, racial; success of the March; bill’s focus on public accommodations; indecision about tactics; continued legislative obstacles; Kennedy legacy?)

History 3442

1960 Election

16 September 2014

3442–1960pp

  1. The Nomination Battles
  2. Transformation of Politics (1950s economic downturn; sense of stagnation; 1958 congressional elections; admission of Alaska & Hawaii; LBJ difficulties Senate; polarization in civil rights; boycotts/sit-ins, White Citizens’ Councils)
  3. Democrats (key contenders: JFK, Humphrey, LBJ, Jackson, Symington; uniformity of message—more vigorous government, more aggressive countering of USSR, generational transition; LBJ and inexplicable reluctance to launch bid)
  4. The Race to Los Angeles (assumptions of candidates: LBJ and confidence in party machinery, Jackson/Symington & hope for brokered convention; Kennedy/Humphrey & need to use primariesàKennedy and Catholic problem [legacy of Al Smith], Humphrey and perception of excessive liberalism; Wisconsin and religious divide, West Virginia and decisive JFK victory; outmaneuvering LBJ; path to nomination; convention bitterness; LBJ vice-presidential nomination and contested memories)
  5. Republicans (Nixon & redefinition of vice-presidency—negotiations with Congress, hard-line foreign policy views, “Kitchen Debate” with Khrushchev; Nixon problems—“Tricky Dick,” polarizing political position, complicated relationship with Eisenhower; Rockefeller challenge—strengths (money, electability), weaknesses (domestic liberalism); Nixon nomination; Goldwater convention speech and origins of future conservative challenge; Lodge vice-presidential nominationàcampaign on seriousness, national security)

 

  1. The General Election
  2. Turning Points (aftereffects of 1958 elections; Kennedy and Houston speech—attempts to neutralize religious issue; Nixon and 50-state campaign promise—use of jet travel, inefficient allocation of time; similarity of messages & importance of image; role of first debate; Eisenhower quip)
  3. To the End (King arrest & changing nature of politics of race; Kennedy, Nixon responses; LBJ & keeping Southerners in line; tightness of election night contest, Kennedy victory; why did Kennedy win?; what was legacy of election?)

 

3442–mccarran-mccarthyPP

  1. Health Care and the Liberal Agenda (SLIDE SUMMARY New Deal efforts & failures; wartime proposals; broader Western trend—Labour government and creation of NHS in Britain; CHART Truman initial proposal (1945), returns to issue 1949àgov’t-run program, individual payments to gov’t, subsidize poorer patients; initial popular support)

 

  1. Demise of Health Care (SLIDE NAMA and mobilization; attack on “socialized medicine”; 3 OTHER CHARTS fueling anti-communist environment; bill’s committee demise; effects: solidifying of employment-related insurance, liberal efforts on more limited targets—elderly, poor)

 

  1. Growing International Instability

 

  1. Crisis Atmosphere (CZ CHARTR continuing tensions—PHOTO MASARYK Czechoslovakia PAPER , MAP AND 2 PHOTO Berlin Blockade, Communist triumph in China; spy scares—PHOTO Hiss VIDEO NIXON, PHOTO Rosenbergs, PHOTO “Cambridge Four”; MOSINEE WISCONIN, MAP, 3 PHOTOS paranoid style of American politics)

 

  1. Korea (PHOTO RHEE AND KIM IL SUNG postwar instability; Acheson speech & German example; North MAP Korean attack; 2 PHOTOS MACARTHUR U.S. response & decision not to go to Congress; MAP, PHOTO HST MACARTHUR initial burst and then Chinese intervention; CHART implementation of NSC-68)

 

III. The Anti-Communist Agenda

 

  1. Internal Security (HUAC and internal security proposals; congressional stalemate; 2 PHOTO McCarran background; Judiciary Committee and congressional power; CHART McCarran Internal Security Act—Truman veto, congressional override)

 

  1. Partisanship and Emergence (McCarthy background; 2 PHOTO Wheeling address and State Department response; PHOTO partisan split in Tydings Committee investigation; PHOTO Margaret Chase Smith “declaration of conscience”; PHOTO OF EACH 1950 elections: Pepper/Smathers, Smith/Graham, 2 PHOTOS DOUGLAS, PHOTO WOMEN SENATOORS Douglas/Nixon 3 HPOTOS NIXON—PINK DOWN TO HER UNDERWEAR, PHOTO defeat of Tydings & legend of McCarthy MAP)

 

  1. Expanding the Agenda (PHOTO LATTIMORE, PHOTO HEARING, creation of Senate Internal Security Subcommittee; REPORT 1951 hearings into IPR and “communist” influence in NYC; McCarran and immigration—displaced persons bill, 1952 McCarran-Walter Act)

 

 

3442–trumanPP

History 3442

Truman’s First Term

2 Sept. 2014

  1. The Postwar Transition
  2. International Conditions (fate of Germany, boundary changes in Central & Eastern Europe; MacArthur in Japan; domestic pressure to bring troops home & demobilize quickly—effects on budget)
  3. Path to 1946 Elections (inflationary surge—OPA & its effects; labor unrest—nearly 5K strikes, 4.6m workers; railroad strike, Truman response, and divisions w/in Democratic coalition; ineffectiveness of congressional response; Cold War tensions, spy ring, & Henry Wallace fiasco; GOP “Had enough?” campaign—McCarthy, Nixon; results)

 

  1. Onset of the Cold War
  2. Crises (Germany: occupation zones & postwar goals; consolidation of Soviet control over EE; Iran, Greece, Turkey, Chinese civil war)
  3. 2. Truman’s Response (announcement of Truman Doctrine—importance of Turkey; announcement of Marshall Plan—transatlantic “official” class; significance of bipartisan cooperation—Vandenberg, Lodge; Structural Change: National Security Act—creation of Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, CIA, NSC; establishment of national security state)

 

III. 1948

  1. The GOP Agenda (limiting labor’s power—Taft-Hartley Act goals & worldview, Truman veto & override, short- and long-term effects; HUAC & anti-communist crusade—popularity with the Republican base, campaign against Hollywood; assume 1948 victory & defer dismantling of New Deal)
  2. The 1948 Campaign (sense of GOP inevitability, Taft strength with party operatives; emergence of Stassen & sudden importance of primaries; Oregon showdown—Dewey vs. Stassen; Dewey prevails; collapse of Dem. Coalition?: Wallace Progressive Party candidacy, civil rights and States’ Rights Democrats splintering, will convention dump Truman?; Dewey strategy—avoid commitments, Truman strategy—“do-nothing Congress,” barnstorming tour; upset victory, Dems recapture Congress, mandate for “Fair Deal”?)

3442–to 1945

 

History 3442

Introduction: American Politics & Policy in 1945

28 August 2014

 

  1. Course Requirements

 

  1. The New Deal Legacy

 

  1. New Deal and American Politics (1932 & collapse of American economy; FDR victory & vagueness of program; emergence of Democratic majority—Solid South, organized labor/white ethnic voters, left-wing intellectuals, African-Americans; 1934 Democratic gains)
  2. New Deal & the American State (origins of Keynesian economics—no gold standard, PWA, WPA, CCC; idea of regulation—Glass-Steagall, FDIC; welfare state—Social Security; labor reform—Wagner Act, NLRB)

 

III. World War II

 

  1. The Global Alliance (FDR’s grand strategy after Pearl Harbor: focus on Europe—slow progress—North Africa, Italy, D-Day and liberation of France, distrust with USSR; war in East: Leningrad, Stalingrad; Singapore, Philippines, and early Japanese victories; Japanese difficulties in sustaining empire; FDR and island-hopping strategy)
  2. The Home Front (mobilization of U.S. economy, role of women in industrial workforce; anti-racist rhetoric and effect on African-Americans—A. Philip Randolph & FEPC; path to internment—domestic pressures, anti-Japanese racism, Korematsu decision; FDR and the Holocaust: slowness of identification, dealing with Vichy, tardiness of creating WRB; separation of military from humanitarian missions—significance in Hungary; domestic anti-semitism—HUAC, nature of postwar immigration policy)

 

  1. The Onset of Truman

 

  1. Political Change (tensions within New Deal coalition: reaction to Court-packing attempt, creation of “conservative coalition”; Republican gains 1938, 1940 election; continued advance 1942, new conservative ideas—Hayek, Taft)
  2. Emergence of Truman (FDR illness & decision to run for 4th term; Wallace and opposition of Democratic conservatives; Truman as compromise choice; desultory campaign & continued national drift to right; Yalta Conference; race to Berlin and collapse of Nazi regime; FDR death, Truman to office, and end of World War II; atomic weapons—Manhattan Project and U.S. government; FDR death; Truman and use of atomic bombs)
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