KC Johnson

3345: PPs, Lecture Notes

History 3345

The Six-Day War & U.S. Diplomacy

15 Oct. 2016


  1. The United States and the Six-Day War
  2. Early Events (Nasser diplomacy and impact of Soviets—significance of military aid, growing confidence in Arab world; Eshkol domestic weaknesses—peculiarities of Israeli political system, feud with Ben Gurion, role of Dayan; decision for preemption)
  3. War and American Diplomacy (strike of Egyptian air force & rout in Sinai; King Hussein’s decision to enter war; Golan fighting and international pressure for cease-fire;Libertyand Israeli-American relations; growth of conspiracy theories—LBJ decision to downplay crisis)
  4. Aftermath
  5. Great Power Diplomacy (path to Glassboro Summit; US-USSR differences over appropriate UN role: Cold War comes to the Arab-Israeli conflict?; Western Europe and war—diminution of Israeli support, hostility of De Gaulle)
  6. UN (Jerusalem and international concern; adoption of UN Res. 242; Khartoum Declaration and death of land-for-peace?; LBJ transitioning & desire for new UN ambassador)
  7. Israeli-U.S. Strategic Partnership (Phantom sale—Symington efforts, LBJ approach, State Department opposition, LBJ ultimate intervention; maintaining regional allies: oil diplomacy, significance of military aid—Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Iran; tensions with Egypt, Syria, and Iraq; European influence—Lebanon, Gulf region)


History 3345

LBJ and Israel

14 October 2016





  1. The Johnson Agenda


  1. The Foreign Aid Revolt (postwar constitutional transformations; expansion of foreign aid and origins of policy ridersà path to Gruening-Keating amendment and foreign aid to aggressor states; left-right coalition and significance of Passman in House; LBJ inability to shape outcome, importance of popular opinion)
  2. Initial Contacts (LBJ background; approach to foreign policy; immediate political needs; LBJ & Israel; Israel’s changing international positionàDeGaulle international vision, search for foreign arms; Erhard visit to LBJ Ranch; LBJ & brokering of tank deal; Eshkol visit to United States)



  1. The Changing U.S. Role in the Middle East


  1. The Israeli Tank Sale (King Hussein and the Western vision of the Middle East; creation of UAC & international pressure; Palestinians & domestic pressure; Soviet role; Israeli & West German political divisions; concern with domestic pressure; State Department Arabists; centrality of LBJ role; peculiar decision-making; long-term significance)
  2. Broader Concerns (recalibrating advisors: increased prominence of Rusk, McNamara, Bundy; harder-line approachàVietnam, Dominican Republic; carry-over to Middle Eastàconcern with Nasser, British-Yemeni struggle, détente with Iran)
  3. Path to the Six-Day War (creation of PLO; anti-Zionism & Arab League; intra-Arab tensions about role; Skyhawks sale; Samu incident & international effects; Nasser’s increasing anti-Zionism; increased tensions)


History 3345

Kennedy and the Middle East

29 September 2016



  1. Democracy and Development
  2. Democracy and Development (Kennedy national security team—Cold War reform, emphasis on Africa/Asia/Latin America: counterinsurgency, promotion of democracy—Latin America, Vietnam; Iran as case study: 1950s legacy—martial law, rigged elections, growing popular discontent; developmental aid, democratic surge?; Shah’s response—military aid, heighten fear of communism, growth of SAVAK; turning point: US and Amini government—withdrawal of support, road to “White Revolution”)
  3. The Turn toward Israel (DDE legacy: security guarantee, arms procurement, Johnston Plan and water diplomacy, improving relations late 1950s?; JFK: Israel as model?—Kennedy and developmentalism; politics—Democratic coalition; Egyptian role in U.S. decision to sell Hawk missiles to Israel; difficulty with refugees)


  1. Strategic Issues


  1. Nuclear Diplomacy (Turkey: Jupiters and the Eisenhower legacy; Kennedy and reconsiderationàpush for Polaris, Turkish resistance, State Department passivity; Khrushchev, Castro, and origins of Cuban Missile Crisis; Turkey and Jupiters; ramifications; Kennedy and nonproliferation; tensions over Dimona; Ben Gurion, Eshkol, and inspection)
  2. Nasser and Cold War concerns (Kennedy, Nasser, and neutralism; collapse of UAR; significance of Yemen intervention and Jordan crisis; broader concerns: Iraqi coup, firming of US-Saudi alliance)





History 3345

Crisis Diplomacy

27 September 2016


I . Suez & Its Effects


  1. Intervention (origins of Project OMEGA; creation of anti-Nasser alliance: Eden and Munich analogy, France and Algerian war, Israel and tense relationship with Egypt, French arms; keeping Eisenhower in dark; initial military successes; international outcry)
  2. Turmoil & Aftermath (Hungarian uprising—Secret Speech, Nagy reform government & popular uprising, Soviet intervention & bankruptcy of rollback rhetoric, Nagy death; impact on events in EgyptàEisenhower pressure and British/French withdrawal, Eden resignation, UN settlement; lingering U.S.-Israeli tensions)


  1. Beyond Suez


  1. CIA (Syria: ARAMCO pipeline & U.S. legacy in Syria; Operation STRAGGLE—joint Turkish/British/US cooperation, effect of Suez on disrupting unity; from Operation WAPPEN to creation of U.A.R. 1958; Iran: U.S. assistance in creation of SAVAK)
  2. Collapse (DDE and congressional power: Formosa Doctrine as precedent; debate over Eisenhower Doctrine—constitutional questions, Democratic divisions; implementation: Qasim coup in Iraq; powers’ response—Britain to Jordan, U.S. to Lebanon (Operation BLUE BAT); rise and fall of Chamoun; Israel: DDE vision, moderate public support, Douglas amendment and congressional role, limitations of US-Egyptian rapprochement)


III. The Fringes


  1. Algeria (French postwar position and political culture—limitations of 4th Republic, outbreak of revolt and FLN, role of international public opinion, alternative to Cold War?, Kennedy speech and American anti-colonial traditions, DDE difficulties)
  2. Turkey (Eisenhower and nuclear weapons, decision to build Jupiters: US-British tensions, domestic pressures, limits of DDE theories; effects of Sputnik and offer to all NATO; who will take?: limitations of Greece, Italy, West Germany; decision to station in Turkey; ramifications)



History 3345

The Cold War & the Search for Stability in the Middle East

22 September 2016


  1. The Eisenhower Transition


  1. The New Look (rollback, McCarthyism, and the 1952 campaign—Republican coalition; NSC 162/2; role of economy; realism and end of Korean War; massive retaliation and Dulles; covert operations; role of Congress and McCarthyism; East Asian diplomacy and significance of Formosa Doctrine; where does Middle East fit in?)
  2. Transforming the Middle East (renegotiation of ARAMCO deal [50-50 with Saudis] & regional effect; 1951 election of Mussadiqàpath to nationalizing Iranian oil fields; British opposition & role of Churchill—imposition of oil embargo; deterioration of U.S. relationship but Truman opposition to coup; Mussadiq, the Shah, and the 1953 coup; implementation of Operation AJAX; short- and long-term effects)
  3. Water Diplomacy (Eisenhower and Israel: minimal economic aid, refusal of military assistance; technocratic response: Johnston Plan & water diplomacy; TVA for the Jordan River Valley?; tough technical negotiations, but de facto recognition of Israel as riparian state?; Arab League rejection of Johnston Plan; Dulles speech & obstacles to peace)


  1. The Road to Suez
  2. Nasser’s Egypt (U.S. background with Nasser—relationship with CIA, desire for military aid; United States and Anglo-Egyptian base settlement—negotiated agreement with Britain to get troops out by 1956, British rights to return in war; effect of base settlement—rise of pan-Arab rhetoric, tensions with IsraelàLavon Affair, fedayeen attacks; US, Nasser, and Aswan Dam; Nasser’s turn east—Bandung, Czech arms deal, recognition of PRC)
  3. Containing Nasser (NSC 5412àcreation of “Special Group” to oversee covert ops; creation of Baghdad Pact—significance of Iraq, pulling Pakistan in; question of Jordanian membership, U.S. outside support; effects on Syria: internal instability and involvement of Western intelligence; 1954 coup & rise of Adnan Malki; assassination and anti-American surge—rise of Ba’athists)
  4. Suez (origins of Project OMEGA; creation of anti-Nasser alliance: Eden and Munich analogy, France and Algerian war, Israel and tense relationship with Egypt, French arms; keeping Eisenhower in dark; Hungarian uprising—Secret Speech, rollback rhetoric, Soviet intervention, Nagy death; invasion launched and DDE response; withdrawal, Eden resignation, and UN settlement)




History 3345

The Cold War in the Middle East

20 September 2016



  1. The United States, Israel, & Cold War Origins
  2. 1. The United States & Israeli Independence (FDR’s record: refugees, opposition to congressional action; postwar shift in opinion—Truman, congressional pressure, displaced persons (500,000); British recalcitrance; partition proposal; pressures on Truman—Congress, American Jews, State Department Arabists, military, fear of being outflanked by Soviets; stalling policy—supporting partition, arms embargo, trustee?; decision to recognize; limitations of move)
  3. Israel & the Cold War (post-recognition Israel and the world; “nation in arms,” border skirmishes, and arms sales: initial neutrality—significance of Britain, then France, role of Czechoslovakia—ammo, spitfire planes; refugees from Arab countries; Israeli politics & first election; Israel and Eastern European dictatorships—fate of Romanian Jews; Stalin and Eastern Europe: fear of Titoism, Jews and E.E. nationalism; battle against “cosmopolitanism”: Hungarian purgesàSlánský/Clementis show trials in Czechoslovakia; differing approaches FRG and DDR; China—Israeli recognition of PRC 1950, Chinese recalcitrance)


  1. The Early Cold War & the Arab World
  2. The U.S.-Saudi Alliance (prewar foundations; Lend-Lease aid to Saudi Arabia, Dhahran air field [not air base], formalizing U.S.-Saudi alliance; postwar concessions; development of “Seven Sisters”)
  3. 2. North Africa (wartime legacy: British-American tensions, FDR, and question of imperialism; Egypt and US open door philosophy; fate of Libya—British desire for Cyrenaica, Soviet demand for joint trusteeship with Italy, US opposition to both; idea of Libyan independence as alternative—British support from Arab League, compromises on Somalia; independence; Wheelus Air Base & U.S. expansion into Libya; North Africa & State Department Eurocentrism—difference from FDR, decision to defer to French)
  4. General Strategy (limits of U.S. support—economic aid, path to NSC 47/2—promotion of demo, peace process, “limited military aid” to Arab states)



History 3345

The Interwar Era

8 September 2016


  1. Oil


  1. Strategic, Political, & Economic Concerns (strategic effects of World War I: tanks and planes, late fighting on the Western Front; economic: Henry Ford and assembly line, dramatic growth of car sales, centrality to U.S. economy; political: Hoover and Dept. of Commerce, creation of BFDC; oil scandals—Fall & Teapot Dome)
  2. The Origins of Oil Diplomacy (prewar U.S. dominance & fear of diminishing supply; British prewar diplomacy—protectorates over Kuwait & Iran, creation of Anglo-Persian Oil Company (1908), Anglo-Persian 1919 agreement; British/French postwar diplomacy—Syrian revolt, Hashemites to Iraq, detachment of Trans-jordan from Palestine mandate; development of Red Line Agreement—strategic realities and imperial pretensions; U.S. reaction: oil access as part of international agenda; development of Western cartel?)
  3. Origins of the U.S.-Saudi Alliance (emergence of Saudi Arabia: Ibn Saud and postwar world, triumph over Hejaz; isolationism and 1920s approach; significance of Depression; reaching out to US—U.S. decision to extend recognition (1931); Standard Oil, ARAMCO, and foundation of US-Saudi alliance)



  1. Road to World War II


  1. Origins of War (Nazism and collapse of 1920s world order; initial moves: rearmament, movement into Rhineland, “Nazi Olympics”; anti-Nazi response—political divisions in Britain and France, Soviet purges; U.S. irrelevance: domestic non-interventionism—isolationists, labor and immigration; hostility of Chamberlain; negotiation of Munich agreement)
  2. The Transformation of Palestine (Palestine: Grand Mufti, Jewish/Arab tensions, Palestinian anger with British; British retreat from Balfour Declaration & implementation of White Paper)
  3. FDR and the Jewish Question (USOC and Nazi Olympics, Jewish refugees—Morgenthau, Ickes, and Eleanor Roosevelt vs. labor, State Department, FDR search for compromise—Alaska solution?, Dominican Republic idea; suspicion of Jewish leaders)
  4. Start of World War II (Nazi-Soviet Pact and invasion of Poland; fall of France and rise of Churchill; creation of Vichy State & French retention of North Africa)





History 3345


6 September 2016


  1. Wilsonianism in Theory


  1. Separating Balkans from the Middle East (Big Four & conflicting postwar visions; Orlando, Wilson, & fate of Treaty of London; Wilsonianism and eastern Europe—blending of realism and idealism; Yugoslavia & placement of Balkans in European international order)
  2. Jews (international environment of era—Czechs, Balts, other ethnicities; Herzl and founding of Zionist movement—rise of late-19th century anti-semitism, nationalist environment; Palestine in OE; road to Balfour Declaration: significance of Lloyd George; US response to Balfour Declaration—weakness of movement, importance of Brandeis, Wilson and self-determination; Palestine in Sykes-Picot agreement)
  3. Armenians (after-effects of WWI: moral claims & Western condemnation of genocide; strategic weaknesses—from Transcaucasian Republic to “independent” Armenia, Treaty of Batur; Wilson mandate concept; linkage with Sykes-Picot proposed boundaries & peace conference agreement)


  1. Mapping the Modern Middle East


  1. Collapse of Wilsonianism (1918 elections and new constitutional order; partisan opposition; attacks from left & right—conservatives and realist critique, peace progressives and anti-imperialist critique; Middle East as examples for anti-Wilsonians: conservatives, Article XXII and Armenia; peace progressives, Article XI, and Syria; Senate rejection of Versailles & demise of Armenia)
  2. From Sèvresto Lausanne (anti-Turkish alliance & dismantling of Ottoman Empire; Mustafa Kemal & revival of Turkish nationalism; crushing of Dem. Rep. of Armenia and path to Treaty of Kars; pressure against Italians; Greek-Turkish war & path to Treaty of Lausanne; significance of Lausanneàannulling Sèvres, population transfer & new approach to minority rights)




3455-190014 PP

History 3345

The Decline of the Ottoman Empire (1900-14)

30 Aug. 2016


  1. Imperialism & The New International Order
  2. British Imperialism (India as the “jewel in the crown”; UK, Russia, and Afghanistan—origins of the “Great Game”; Britain & Russia into Persia; Britain and Egypt—importance of Middle East, Suez and path to India; British, French, and alternative approaches to imperialism; race to Fashoda & long-term effects; development of Anglo-French entente; Britain, Boers, and Boer War—concentration camps, international opprobrium, unification of South Africa)
  3. The American Embrace of Imperialism (election of 1896 and emergence of Republican majority; new arguments for imperialism—imitating the great powers, East Asian scramble for power, need to address trade deficit, Social Darwininism and new cultural theories; onset of war; growth of presidential power; transformation of international environment; Philippines war and collapse of imperialist consensus; TR & more assertive U.S. role)
  4. Crises
  5. New European Order (increasing European instability: replacement of Bismarck by Wilhelm II—desire for “place in the sun,” end of British “splendid isolation,” Anglo-German naval race; Franco-Russian alliance and 1905 realignment)
  6. Morocco (French expansion into North Africa; Kaiser rhetorical challenge; Algeciras: U.S. invitation, German isolation, tightening of German-Austrian relations; second Moroccan crisis and Neukamerun as compensation; growth of “Berlin-to-Baghdad” concept & growing German-Turkish ties)
  7. Balkans (1903: Serbian coup; Turkish instability and rise of Young Turks—difficulties with minorities; 1908 crisis and Austrian seizure of Bosnia—U.S. non-participation in diplomatic conference; creation of Balkan League and path to First Balkan War; creation of Albania; Second Balkan War and decline of Bulgaria; continuing instability, Bosnia, role of Serb terrorism & path to World War I)




History 3345

Introduction: 18th and 19th Centuries

25 August 2016

Website: http://kc-johnson.com

Email: kcjohnson9@gmail.com


  1. Strategic Uncertainty
  2. The United States, the Middle East, and the 18thCentury World (Euroecentric world: France and Britain as superpowers; US independence and importance of international assistance, Ottoman Empire and “imperial overstretch”: European difficulties, Russian and Austrian rivalries; Napoleonic wars and Egypt, difficulties with North Africa)
  3. The Barbary Wars (independence, the Treaty of Paris, and post-independence trade disruptions; strategic weaknesses of Articles government; early debates and anti-militarist attitudes; the First Party system and the Navy; diplomatic incompetence; tensions with Tripoli and Tunis; Jefferson and tension between realism/idealism; Jefferson and presidential power; nature of war and aftermath—distinction between ransom and tribute, Second Barbary War; growth of British power in the Mediterranean)
  4. U.S. Expansion
  5. Commerce and the Levant (commerce and the Northeastern economy; role of East Asia; United States as counterpoint to Britain; interest in Turkey Persia, Egypt; limited nature overall commerce)
  6. The United States Encounters the Ottoman Empire (image of the infidel; origins of Greek revolt; American sympathy and sectional divisions; J.Q. Adams, presidential ambitions, and origins of Monroe Doctrine; Turkish strategic needs; road to commercial treaty: 1830; Persian treaty)
  7. Missionaries (the Ottomans and religious minorities; creation of ABCFM—“artillery of heaven”; fundraising and the Second Great Awakening; American interest in the Holy Land, Smyrna, Beirut; beyond religion: printing press, education; gradual expansion to Armenia)

III. Turkish Decline

  1. British-French intervention; nature of fighting—military firsts; Russian defeat; postwar settlement—how to handle Balkan areas on Turkish frontier?, strategic importance of Romania, Russian destruction Black Sea fleet)
  2. The Russo-Turkish War (Russian expansionism and central Asia; search for warm-water port—Dardanelles as preferred option; Russian excuses—Lebanon crisis, Crete crisis, treatment of Christians in O.E.; uprisings in Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia; Bulgarian “massacres” and international attention—development of human rights law; Serbian war and Russian support; Turkish passivity and Russian victory—dual front war; from San Stefano to Congress of Berlin—demise of “Big Bulgaria”)
  3. U.S. Withdrawal (Civil War and turn inwards; termination of Mediterranean Fleet; U.S. irrelevancy and European imperialism; United States and Armenia—decline of the missionary impulse, Chinese temptation, continued trade with Ottoman Empire)
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