KC Johnson

Core: Handouts & PowerPoints

Core 1220
Imperialism II, Latin America
12 October 2010

I. War and Aftermath

1. The Cuban Revolt (Cuba and the Spanish empire; transformation of Cuban economy—abolition of slavery, dramatic expansion of U.S. investment; earlier revolt and U.S. policy; racial and economic issues within Cuba)

2. The U.S. Involvement (1893: renewed conflict and effects; Spanish response—Weyler strategies; Venezuela: Olney manifesto and more assertive U.S. role in hemisphere; Cuban junta and U.S. public opinion; economic pressure from business interests; sinking of the Maine; McKinley and decision for war—Teller amendment; war and U.S. public opinion; McKinley decisions [Cuba, Philippines, and Puerto Rico] and debate; road to the Platt amendment)

II. Imperial Rivalries in the Western Hemisphere

1. The Panama Canal (TR Reputation & muscular image; pre-presidential background and succession of McKinley; demise of Clayton-Bulwer Treaty; Panama—French canal company’s failure, re-emergence of interest after Spanish-American War; negotiations with Colombia; breakdown and decision to sponsor rebellion; violation of Bidlack’s Treaty; poisonous effects on hemisphere)

2. The Venezuela crisis (Latin American regimes and reliance on foreign capital; Poyais affair; foreign investment and diplomatic leverage; Castro government and foreign loans; German-British-Italian intervention; U.S. response; decision from The Hague: international law in the pre-World War I era)

3. Alternatives to Intervention (2nd Cuban intervention; Dominican Republic and customs receivership—model for future?; demographic and economic trends Latin America—population shift Argentina)

4. Mexican Revolution and Imperialism (after Juarez: the Diaz dictatorship, the scientificos and foreign investment; 1900-onwards concern with excessive U.S. investment and opening to Europe; Britain and Mexican oilfields; Madero rebellion, Diaz ouster, and continued instability; U.S. policy and importance of Henry Lane Wilson; British policy and significance of agents; Germany and the hemisphere; U.S. and the coup)

5. Woodrow Wilson and Imperialism (contradictions in Wilsonianism—bold rhetoric, emphasis on peace and internationalism; racism, paternalism; interventions in Haiti and Dominican Republic: American colonialism?)

What is your view of the Civil War and Reconstruction period (1860-1876) in the United States? Some historians see it as a “second American revolution,” continuing the progress of the Revolutionary and Constitutional era (1774-1791). Other historians see the period as similar to the European “wars of unification” in countries like Germany and Italy. And still other historians are that we should view the Civil War and Reconstruction as a unique era, involving different themes and issues from either the Revolution or contemporaneous events in Europe. What’s your opinion? Be sure to use examples from BOTH reading and class in your response.

How well does realist theory–the idea that in foreign policy, nations base their activities solely on what is perceived as advancing the nation’s strategic self-interest–explain European affairs from 1800 through 1914? Discuss, making reference to at least three of the following events: the Napoleonic Wars; the Wars of German unification; the status of the Ottoman Empire; events in the Balkans (1878-1914); British imperialism in south and east Asia; imperialism in Africa.


Core 1220

Imperialism, I

7 October 2010

I. Asia

1. Theories of Imperialism (power: competition among major states, importance of status?; economics: search for raw materials, quest for markets, world economy as zero-sum game?; culture: emergence of “social Darwinism,” racism)

2 . Origins (early wave of imperialism: Dutch and Portuguese to Indonesia, British movement into India; decline of China; economic rivalry and path to Opium War; outcome and emergence of “extraterritoriality”; development of spheres of influence; formal colonization—French into Indochina)

3. Wars of Imperialism (Japan and Meiji Restoration; Sino-Japanese War and Japanese expansion into Taiwan, Korea; U.S. acquisition of Philippines & path to Boxer Rebellion intervention; Manchuria and international rivalry—importance of railroad & geography; Russo-Japanese War and upsetting racial theories, triggers 1905 Russian revolt; powers addressing JapanàAnglo-Japanese Alliance, U.S. rivalry: Hawaii, immigration issues, naval tour)

II. Africa

1. Scramble for North Africa (decline of Ottoman Empire & emergence of Barbary Statesàinstability in Mediterranean; Britain and Egypt—importance of Middle East, Suez and path to India; French into Algeria)

2. Imperial Rivalry (British, French, and alternative approaches to imperialism; race to Fashoda & long-term effects; development of Anglo-French entente; limitations of European expansionism—Italy in Ethiopia)

3. German Factor (replacement of Bismarck by Wilhelm IIàdesire for “place in the sun”; Britain, Boers, and Boer War—concentration camps, international opprobrium, unification of South Africa; Germany and first Moroccan crisis and Cameroon; second Moroccan crisis and Tanganyika)


The Crimean War (Napoleon III and illusions of grandeur; dispute over control of Holy Land; indecisiveness by Sultan; Russian decision to attack; The Prussian king Frederick II sarcastically remarked that a war between the Ottoman Empire and Russia would be “a war between the one-eyed and the blind”.



Crimean: deadly accurate rifles, significant use of the telegraph, tactical use of railways, life-saving medical innovations, trench combat, undersea mines, “live” reporting to newspapers, and cigarettes


British-French intervention; nature of fighting—military firsts; Russian defeat; postwar settlement—how to handle Balkan areas on Turkish frontier?, strategic importance of Romania, Russian destruction Black Sea fleet)


2. The Russo-Turkish War (Russian expansionism and central Asia; search for warm-water port—Dardanelles as preferred option; Russian excuses—Lebanon crisis, Crete crisis, treatment of Christians in O.E.; uprisings in Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia; Bulgarian “massacres” and international attention—development of human rights law; Serbian war and Russian support; Turkish passivity and Russian victory—dual front war; from San Stefano to Congress of Berlin)


1. Prussian Diplomacy (Bismarck and role of diplomacy—isolate France; pacifying Austria; Triple Alliance—OE, Italy, A-H; Reinsurance Treaty with Russia; Kaiser displacement of Bismarck; increasingly erratic nature of German diplomacy)


2. European Tensions (Russian instability—political tensions, anti-Jewish pogroms; France—creation of Third Republic, internal divisions, path to Dreyfus Affair; Germany—Reichstag and movement toward constitutional monarchy?; Britain and expansion of franchise)


3. New Problems in the Balkans (Turkish instability and rise of Young Turks—difficulties with minorities; 1908 crisis and Austrian seizure of Bosnia; creation of Balkan League and path to First Balkan War; creation of Albania; Second Balkan War and decline of Bulgaria; continuing instability)


In 1900, the empire’s 51 million people included two states, 10 “historic nations,” and 20 other ethnic groups. Its Balkan possessions included Roman Catholic Croats and Slovenes with allegiances to Rome and Western Europe; Bosnian Muslims converted under Ottoman rule; and Eastern Orthodox Serbs and Montenegrins who long had resisted Ottoman overlordship.




Shortly before his death, Bismarck remarked, “If there is ever another war in Europe, it will come out of some damned silly thing in the Balkans.”



Core 1220

Nationalism & State Formation

30 September 2010

I. The U.S. Civil War: Pressing Issues

1. Legacies (election of 1860; Crittenden Compromises; was there a constitutional way to avoid the Civil War?; Lincoln and executive authority—the Constitution in civil conflict: habeus corpus, martial law, draft law and its inequities; growth of federal government—Homestead Act, Land Grant College Act, Pacific RR Act)

2. The Aims of War (what were the Union’s war aims?—Emancipation Proclamation or retaining union; role of race: is the 13th amendment enough? What is the obligation of the federal government to the former slaves?, economic vs. political rights; role of war: was the “conflict” a “war”?; role of federalism: can the Constitution survive the Civil War?, issue of military government vs. states’ rights; future of Republican Party: economic vs. ideological interests)

II. Reconstruction

1. From Lincoln to Johnson (interpreting Lincoln’s plan for Reconstruction; legacy of Union Party; Johnson political background and role of race; former rebels and postwar Congress; Black Codes and Southern policies; constitutional theories—national or federal government?; Freedmen’s Bureau and the limits of Washington’s power)

2. Reconstruction Agenda (overpowering the President: Civil Rights Act of 1866; going around the President—14th and 15th amendments; military governments—Reconstruction Act of 1867; constitutional crisis: House impeachment; Senate trial and acquittal; ramifications—weakening of Radicals, politicizing impeachment?)

3. The Failure of Reconstruction (Johnson and the weakening of the Republican coalition; the constitutional world of US Grant; implementing the 14th amendment—Enforcement Act [1870], Ku Klux Klan Act [1871], Civil Rights Act [1875]; blueprints for a Republican South; Southern “redeemers” and massive resistance; 1876 election)

III. Patterns of Unification

1. Germany (development of Prussian state: bureaucracy, militarism, complicated international record; legacy of 1848 revolutions; unification through warfare—Denmark, Austria, France)

2. Italy (city-states and legacy of Renaissance; Napoleonic period and pseudo-unification; unification and republicanism; unresolved issues—monarchy, power of religion)

3. Mexico (post-independence decline; impact of war with U.S.; political battles—question of clerical power; French intervention and regrouping of Liberals; emergence of Juarez)


Core 1220
International Revolutions
21 September 2010

I. The French Revolution

1. The Demise of the Old Order (archaic constitutional structure; foreign policy overreach; financial difficulties; initial revolution; from instability to terror; emergence of Napoleon)

2. The Napoleonic Wars (Napoleon as military tactician; Napoleon as political leader; imperial ambitions; anti-Napoleon coalition: weaknesses, internal rivalries; French consolidation of control in Central Europe; Britain and continental blockade; dubious decisions: Spain, Russia)

3. Post-Napoleonic Europe (emergence of Russian power; Trafalgar and continued British naval dominance; Napoleon and Waterloo; postrevolutionary France, Metternich, and origins of Holy Alliance; bipolar Europe?)

II. The Western Hemisphere Revolutions

1. The Haitian Revolution (Haiti and the French Revolution; the emergence of Touissant; murky status of Haiti; British invasion; French ambivalence—divisions between planter class and Paris government; U.S.—military aid to quasi-alliance; Napoleonic invasion and background to Louisiana Purchase; Haiti and the origins of social revolution; French exiles and the Caribbean intellectual world—Southern emigration and fears; Latin American attitude—Creole elite and French planters?, Haiti and Dominican Republic)

2. The Latin American Revolutions (Wars of French Revolution and demise of Spain; Cadiz cabildo and Latin American counterrevolution?; Atlantic world and continuing intellectual communion—Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina; limits of revolutions—Hidalgo and Mexico; the powers’ response: Britain, Smith, and world of free trade; Spain and need for allies—Holy Alliance?; ambivalent attitude of Russia; Haiti)

3. The U.S. Response (Liss: “Large Policy” and Its Limits—Jefferson, Madison and vision for Atlantic Empire; Latin American response; continuing importance of commerce; War of 1812 and shifting nature of inter-American relations; strategic needs: Florida and US relations with Spain; significance of recognition; spreading of democracy; Poinsett and disillusionment)


Core 1220

The Enlightenment World

2 September 2010

I.  Reading Summary

II. Legacy of 17th Century World

1. Rise & Fall of the Hapsburgs (emergence of Britain; Britain and the Reformation—from Henry VIII to Elizabeth, Armada and British Power; continuation of nation-state pattern; rise & fall of Dutch power)

2. Impact of Reformation (intellectual challenges to Catholic church and leaders; conflict in Germany—causes & consequences of Thirty Years War; importance of Bohemia, Denmark, Sweden; Peace of Westphalia and emergence of nation-state system; countries without nationalism—examples of Poland, Britain, Russia)

3. Era of Northern Europe (17th century tensions and rise of Cromwell; Long Parliament and restoration of monarchy; Glorious Revolution and consolidation of British state—constitutional monarchy and principle of “mixed government”; limitations of democracy—restrictions on electorate, “rotten boroughs”)

III. The World in 1763

1. A Bipolar World? (the emergence of England and France; differing approaches to political economy—France and feudal system, emphasis on land power; England and overseas commerce, emphasis on sea power—comparatively cheaper; differing approaches to government: France and mixed system—three estates, unequal power; the British experiment—17th century civil wars, Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy and “mixed government”)

2. Utrecht and the Decline of the Spanish Empire (Spain and bureaucratic monarchy; dangers of imperial overstretch—Spanish budgetary and governance difficulties; British targeting; European wars; limits of mercantilism—Peace of Utrecht and origins of asiento, Spanish loss of territory in Europe; removal of Habsburgs)

3. Realpolitik and Central/Eastern Europe (the Ottoman approach to empire; expansion into Egypt, the Middle East, the Balkans; conquest of Budapest, defeat at Vienna, slow retreat; emergence of three eastern empires—decoupling of Vienna from Madrid Habsburgs, gradual Austrian expansion; Russia into Europe and role of the czars; emergence of Prussia; Polish vulnerability and elective monarchy; three-stage partition)

core–9-3–enlightenment pp


Core 2.2

Western Hemisphere Colonization

31 aug. 2010

I. Iberian Empires

1. Spain in 1492 (Spain in Middle Ages; reunification and battle against Moors; anti-semitism and Spanish nationalism; rivalry with Portugal; weakness of monarchy and sponsorship of Columbus)

2. Colonization Process (Columbus and failure of Dominican Republic colonization—long-term effects; Aztecs and Incas—appointment of Pizarro and Cortes, success of Spanish conquest: role of technology, disease, internal divisions among Indian empires; consolidation of control—creation of Viceroyalties of Peru and Mexico, importance of bureaucracy; gold & silver economy, role of mita; development of hacienda system and Spanish agriculture; Catholic Church and república de los indios; acceptance of Indians’ common lands)

3. Portuguese Empire (commercial expansion and development of spice trade; importance of Africa outposts; Treaty of Tordesillas and Brazilian opening; British alliance and waning of Portuguese power; Spanish invasion [1580] and gradual decline; Dutch and Brazil; creation of Brazilian sugar colony—importance of slavery in Portuguese structure)

II. North American Empires

1. France (development of French state; importance of land power; three-pronged approach to colonization: strategic outposts [Quebec, Montreal, Detroit, New Orleans]; role of church; economic impetus—fur trading; underpopulation and Indian alliances; role of Haiti in French empire)

2. Britain (peripheral power in 16th century Europe; strengthening of British monarchy, growth of British commerce; British approach to empire—decentralized state, mercantilism in theory, not in practice—non-enforcement of Navigation Act; empire as cooling-off point for dissenters—Puritans, Quakers, Catholics, prison advocates; Jamaica, Barbados, and slave colonies; development of Atlantic World—commerce, slave trade)

3. Failed Colonizers (emergence of Netherlands and creation of new European economy; Dutch and development of northeastern Brazil; “New Netherlands” and Dutch settlement of New York; limits on Dutch empire—Portuguese/British alliance and collapse of Dutch; “New Sweden” and Swedish W. Hemisphere efforts)

4. Decline of the Spanish Empire (dangers of imperial overstretch—Spanish budgetary and governance difficulties; British targeting; European wars; limits of mercantilism—Peace of Utrecht and origins of asiento)

core–8-31 powerpoint


Core 1220


26 August 2010


I.  Course Requirements

II. Time Periods

1. Colonization and Revolutions (Initial Expansion: The Columbian Exchange, Colonialism, and Slavery; Enlightenment thinkers—new approaches to politics; Revolutions—United States, France, Latin America)

2. The European Century (Industrialization and its effects; European diplomacy in the 19th century; nationalism and state formation—United States, Germany, Italy, Balkans; imperialism in East Asia, Africa, and Latin America)

3. World in Turmoil (World War I—causes & effects; communism and postwar settlement; depression, fascism, Stalinism; path to World War II and conflict)

4. The Postwar Era (Cold War and its hardening; decolonization; 1960s challenges; globalization and the post-Cold War world)

III. The World as of the 16th Century

1. Age of Empires (Chinese domination, peculiarities of worldview; rise and fall of Mogul Empire; African states; Islamic world—emergence of Ottoman Empire; Latin America—rise and fall of Mayans, Aztec and Inca Empires; European weakness—intellectual, economic, military)

2. Why Did Europe Come to Predominate? (significance of nation-state system: political rivalries, national security as economic driver, openness to risk-taking—differing approaches to government, differing economic theories, importance of international trade; religious rivalries—stimulation of intellectual development, creation of rival elites; luck—Spanish & Portuguese colonization schemes)

core–8-26 PowerPoint

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