KC Johnson

Core 2.2–Sept. 15-29 Classes

September 15: The Constitution

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
  • Map–state ratifications of Constitution, with dates const ratification

September 17: International Revolutions

September 22: The World in 1850

September 24:
Diplomacy–in class

map (print out & bring to class):



Diplomacy is a game of skill rather than luck, in which each player represents a European power in the late 19th century. Playing Diplomacy successfully will require skilled negotiations and an ability to plan complex strategies.

Players and Countries and the Object of the Game

The object of the game is simple: the team that gains the most Supply Centers (identified by the red dots on the map) by the end of class wins, and each member of the team gets a five-point bonus on the midterm exam.

Diplomacy and Negotiations

A large part of Diplomacy is the ability for players to make secret agreements and pacts. The idea is to add another dimension to the game involving trickery and deception. Any agreement made does not have to be kept, in other words: lying, cheating, spreading rumors, trading information and things like that are not only allowed but encouraged. Ask yourself: “What Would Metternich Do?”

Supply Centers

Some places on the board contain black circles which represent Supply Centers. There are 34 in all and each one can support an army or a fleet (called units; these are the only units in the game). The amount of units you have fluctuates with the amount of Supply Centers you have.

The Playing Board

The playing board (supplied in the map you need to download for class) consists of countries, provinces, and bodies of water. Countries are separated by thick black lines and are subdivided into provinces. Every body of water and every province is a space.

The units in Diplomacy consist of armies and fleets. On a real playing board armies are represented by squares or stars or whatever and fleets are represented by long blocks or little ships or whatever, but on the maps at this site they are both represented by a province filled with the color of their respective players.

At the start of the game every country has three supply centers, and three units, except for Russia which has four. Every supply center has a unit in it, whether army or fleet. The starting position is:

England (Dark Blue) F London F Edinburgh A Liverpool
Germany (Grey) A Berlin A Munich F Kiel
Russia (Green) A Moscow A Warsaw F St. Petersburg (sc) F Sevastopol
Turkey (Yellow) A Constantinople A Smyrna F Ankara
Austria-Hungary (Light Blue) A Vienna A Budapest F Trieste
France (Orange) A Paris A Marseilles F Brest

There are twelve supply centers not listed here which remain independent at the start of the game. (A represents an army and F represents a fleet.)

Writing Your Moves/Move Order

Only one unit can occupy one province or one body of water at once and a unit can only do one thing a turn. An army can be ordered to hold, move or support while a fleet can move, hold, or convoy. An army can move to any adjacent province unless there is a unit in conflict with it and a fleet can move into any body of water or coastal province that is adjacent to it as long as it is not in conflict with another unit. No unit may move into one of those unnamed islands or anything else that isn’t named. When a fleet is in a coastal province it may move to another coastal province as long as those provinces are adjacent along the coastlines.

Your team’s moves are generally a secret. If you submit an order that makes no sense then the order isn’t followed and that unit or those units just stay put. Try to be careful when you submit your moves (to me, in written form) because sloppiness can obviously hurt you. Each turn lasts five minutes.


If two or more units are ordered to be in the same space, none of them can. Likewise, if a unit tries to move into a space but cannot another unit trying to move into the space that the first unit tried to leave cannot enter. Also, if two units try to move into each others spaces then neither of them can move. These three situations are called stand-offs. These rules apply to both armies and fleets.


A unit has the ability to support another unit when it’s moving or staying still. If a unit is a supporting another unit in moving then the supporting unit must be in a space adjacent to both the space where the unit is and where it’s going. Put simply, to support you have to be next to the unit and next to where it’s going. A fleet can only give support into a coastal province and an army cannot support into an ocean.

When a unit moves it moves with the force of one unit. But if it is supported it moves with the force of itself plus all supporting unit. If a unit moves into conflict with another unit and it has more force, then the unit it is “attacking” it can make its move and it dislodges the unit that was there. A draw in force goes to the defender. This is the principle behind attacking and gaining your additional supply centers, which is the goal of the game.

Cutting Support

What do you do if you’re about to be out-forced in an attack? If a unit that is giving support is attacked or dislodged then its support is undone or cut.


When a unit becomes displaced it must retreat. A unit can retreat to any adjacent space with a few exceptions. A unit cannot retreat to a space where another unit is present or where the attacker came from or a space that is empty because of a standoff. If a unit cannot retreat, it must be disbanded.


Fleets have the ability to convoy armies across bodies of water. Fleets can convoy foreign armies but can only convoy one unit at a time and only once a turn. An army may be convoyed across multiple bodies of water as long as there are fleets convoying in every body of water that the army is passing over.

Gaining and Losing Units

The number of units a team has is directly proportional to the number of supply centers that they control. To control a supply center all the team needs to do is occupy it at the end of the turn. Once a team has control they no longer need to stay on that space, but you lose control if another team manages to place a unit in the supply center during a later turn.
After the turn is complete, every team must have the same number of supply centers as units. If the team has lost supply centers then that team must pick which units they want to disband until the number is equal. If a team has gained supply centers then they are allowed to build new units in their home or original supply centers until they number of supply centers and units is equal. If they have lost all their home supply centers then they cannot build any units.

Basic Rules
1. Basic Rules
a. Unit
aa. Fleet
aaa. can move between bodies of water
bbb. can move into coastal provinces
ccc. can support an action into a coastal province
ddd. can transport an army across bodies of water (if attacked, convoy fails)
eee. cannot move across land
fff. cannot support & convoy at the same time
bb. Army
aaa. can move across land
bbb. can support other units
ccc. needs assistance to traverse bodies of water.
b. Engagement
aa. each unit has an effective force of one (1)
bb. a defender is only moved by greater force
cc. a defender who is forced to retreat cannot retreat to where he was attacked from.
dd. if equal force is applied to a zone, the zone remains vacant.

September 29: No class—transition day

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