KC Johnson

History 417–Lectures

History 417

The Obama Era

May 13, 2010

1. Partisanship (bipartisanship in the Obama vision—Gates, Bernanke, LaHood, stimulus tax cuts, business alliances in health care debate; ideological cohesiveness and GOP congressional caucuses; Republicans and political memory of 1994; Cantor and stimulus vote; McConnell and party unity argument; prominence of filibusters; role of conservative base—talk radio, “epistemic closure” debate)

2. Obama as Legislative Leader (how to measure?: accomplishments vs. political strength debate; stimulus and dealing with economic collapse; jobs, housing, and decision to focus on health care; difficulties of debate and late revival; struggles with other aspects of agenda—immigration, climate legislation)

3. Emergence of the Tea Party Movement (deficit, health care debate, and emergence of tea parties; who are the tea partiers?; significance of Palin, Beck; question of race and racism—previous actions in anti-immigration movement; role in Republican politics: Specter defection, “Scozzafavad,” Bennett defeat, political effects)

4. Social Issues and Redefining Liberalism (Obama and campaign: running to Clinton’s left—endorsement of Freedom of Choice Act (FOCA), “fierce advocate” of gays and lesbians; Obama as president: Dowd thesis, Sullivan thesis; abortion and health care debate—Stupak amendment; gay rights—hesitancy on DADT, aggressive legal defense of DOMA, Maine Question One debate and legacy of Proposition 8)

5. Anti-Obama Political Backlash (off-year election tradition; significance of Virginia; Obama involvement in New Jersey and Christie victory; Democratic House retirements; enthusiasm and turnout gaps; likely 2010 losses)

6. Presentation: Massachusetts 2010 Senate Race

History 417

The 2008 Campaign

May 11, 2010

1. Emergence of Obama (Gore decision not to run; weaknesses of other Democratic candidates; Clinton’s inept campaign; Obama support—fundraising, Iraq war position, youth vote; significance of Iowa caucuses; Iowa victory and change in black support; South Carolina primary and first emergence of race issue—portraying Obama as the “black candidate”?)

2. The Politics of Procedure (Democratic rule-making: nominating processes at control of parties, the Florida & Michigan dispute; Jesse Jackson rule changes—importance of staying competitive; caucuses and primaries; superdelegates and formal role; Obama campaign stress on pledged delegates)

3. Obama as Inevitable? (the Kennedy endorsement; “Super-Duper Tuesday” and failure of Clinton strategy— Penn failure to know the rules, Idaho vs. New Jersey; chaos on Clinton campaign—organization, money; Obama winning streak—the Obama coalition: African-Americans, younger voters, better-educated/wealthier Democrats)

4. Obama as Unelectable? (“bitter” comment; release of Wright videos and Obama’s race speech; Clinton as white working-class heroine; North Carolina and Indiana; Clinton’s racial argument—West Virginia, Kentucky, rejection by superdelegates)

5. The Fall Election (McCain as “maverick”; race and taking Wright off table?; Palin & Palinism: difficulties with media/knowledge of issues; crowds and coded messages; demographic appeal— Wallace legacy; economic collapse and erratic McCain response; debates and Obama expectations; benefiting from race?—increased black turnout, symbolizing change, role of Hispanics; appeal in exurbs and traditionally GOP states—Virginia, North Carolina, Colorado, Indiana; victory; Appalachia/Ozark results)

6. Legislative Races (Democratic House surge—impact of black vote, New England results, Middle States; Senate contests)

7. Presentation: Minnesota 2008 Senate Race

History 417

The Travails of the Bush Administration

May 6, 2010

I. Political Capital & Its Limits

1. Presentation—South Dakota 2004 Senate Race

2. Redefining the Court (Roberts—background, “balls and strikes” metaphor, broad support; Bush and Miers nomination—weak credentials, ideological concerns, conservative revolt; Alito—GOP overcomes filibuster, shifting Court to right, long-term impact)

3. Struggles (privatizing Social Security?—congressional resistance and indifference; Iraq and credibility problems; Katrina and questions of Bush competence; Fitzgerald investigation—Libby indictment, Rove inquiry, Bush shifting responses; poll collapse)

II. Fate of the Congressional Republicans

1. Struggles (the Schiavo case: transformation of American Catholic leadership, significance to Evangelical Protestants, role of Florida GOP leadership, court rulings, special congressional session, Frist “diagnosis,” legislationàpublic reaction; ethics scandals: indictment & resignation of DeLay; Abramoff indictment—Ralph Reed, Bob Ney tie-ins; Mark Foley and House pages—allegations of hypocrisy; 2006 midterm elections—Democrats take both House & Senate)

2. Polarization & Crisis (Rumsfeld resignation; Gates, surge, and political deemphasis of Iraq; a paralyzed Congress: House polarization—demise of House GOP moderates, House conservatives and lessons of Bush difficulties, Pelosi and aggressive conception of Speaker’s power; Senate: changing nature of filibuster, changing culture of Senate, McConnell and proliferation of cloture; economic crisis and TARP vote—Paulson as point man, opposition of House Republicans, package passed)

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History 417

9/11 and Its Effects

May 4, 2010

I. Aftermath of 2000

1. The Original Bush Agenda (attempts at bipartisanship—cabinet possibilities, Lott/Daschle agreement; translating the promise of “compassionate conservativism”: Office of Faith-based Programs; No Child Left Behind & wooing of Kennedy)

2. The Conservative Agenda (conservatives and the Reagan image—remembering tax cuts, opposing compromises with principle; effect of 1994 Republican Revolutionaries; fear of government and attacking the surplus, minimizing the deficit; principles behind 2001 tax cut; Jeffords defection & change of Senate party control)

II. Aftermath of 9/11

1. Attack & Response (the administration and Al-Qaeda; international response: Afghanistan; domestic response: Patriot Act; bureaucratic response: “unitary executive” theory, expansion of Cheney’s power; Homeland Security Department debate; run-up to Iraq War; Democrats and 2002 election—de-emphasize national security, Wellstone death, GOP gains)

2. Presentation—Georgia 2002 Senate Race

III. Polarization

1. Political Hardball (Texas redistricting: DeLay and 2002 legislative races; Democratic resistance—Perry initial concession, special session, Democrats flee and DeLay involvement, Democrats give in; 2004 results; Medicare Part D—prescription drugs and policy implications, aging of GOP and political implications; House vote and leadership pressure; underestimation of cost; politicizing war—“Mission Accomplished,” but growing controversy—Rumsfeld and Baghdad looting, revelation of Abu Ghraib)

2. Challenging Bush (Gore decision; Lieberman collapse—and effects; Dean’s message; Dean’s technology; surge—endorsements of Gore, Bradley, Harkin; concerns with temperament and electability—Clark as alternative?, Gephardt attacks; Kerry victory and “Dean Scream”; Kerry appeal—electability?, selection of Edwards; convention—minimizing attacks on Bush, stressing status as veteran, emergence of Obama)

3. The Fall Campaign (Rove and appealing to base; attacking Kerry’s strengths: veterans and SwiftBoat attacks, electability and gay marriage issue; constitutional amendments and maximizing Christian conservative turnout, importance of Ohio; keeping Kerry on defensive—flip-flops, stress on terrorism; outcome—“moral values,” education, religion; Senate races—GOP Southern sweep, long-term significance)

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History 417

2000

April 29, 2000

I. Beyond Clinton

1. Bush’s Nomination (Bush background; role of evangelical Christianity—“Jesus Christ” as biggest political influence; “compassionate conservativism,” emphasis on bipartisanship, moral values; McCain challenge—“Straight Talk Express,” campaign finance reform, maverick reputation, bipartisan popularity, NH victory, “agents of intolerance”; Rove and SC counterattack; Cheney as V-P)

2. Gore’s Nomination (Gore dilemmas—what to do about Clinton?, testy relationship with media, reputation for exaggeration, Hillary campaign and national attention; convention pageantry; Lieberman selection & distancing from Clinton)

3. Fall Campaign (Gore structural problems: Nader vote, legacy of Elian Gonzalez case in Florida, Hillary and national appeal; significance of debates—1st debate and “sighing,” 2nd and compromising, reinforcing image of non-genuine; Bush DUI and Gore late surge)

III. Election Night

1. The Vote (polarized nation—gender, age, region, red/blue divide; Florida fiasco: premature calls for Gore, then Bush; premature concession by Gore, then Volusia Co. computer error; recanvass and Gore gain; Dem. frustration: Nader vote, butterfly ballot, Haitians, Harris and voter-roll purge; Harris role in demanding quick certification)

2. Congress (Democratic surge?: MO race—Carnahan death, “Still With Mel,” Ashcroft defeat; Washington: Cantwell and legacy of internet economy, role of mail-in ballots, late victory; outcome of 50-50 Senate)

3. Presentation—Michigan Senate Race

III. Recount

1. Tactical and Legal Decisions (Bush approach: significance of Baker and Ginsberg, importance of p.r. strategy; Gore approach: appeal to Florida courts, partial recounts [Palm Beach, Volusia, Miami-Dade, Broward], initial victory; Gore setbacks: Lieberman and military votes, Miami-Dade and “Brooks Brothers riot,” incompetence in Palm Beach; tactical error: why no statewide recount demand?)

2. The Supreme Court Intervenes (Bush appeal; will Court hear case?; expectations and decision; majority, equal protection, and lack of precedent; bitterness of dissents; short- and long-term impact; who won?)

History 417

Impeachment

April 27, 2010

I. The Original Scandals

1. Whitewater (Clintons and the McDougals; New York Times articles; Janet Reno and nature of independent counsel statute; appointment of Fiske and exposure to Arkansas; statute re-authorized, three-judge panel, and replacement of Fiske with Starr)

2. The Starr Heyday (targeting the First Lady: Webster Hubbell as cooperating witness, Rose Law Firm billing records, Hillary before grand jury; targeting Arkansas corruption: McDougals and Jim Guy Tucker, elevation of Huckabee)

II. Jones & Lewinsky

1. The Scandal Emerges (Jones and CPAC, filing lawsuit; “vast right-wing conspiracy”?: Brock, Scaife, FOX; conservative embrace of Jones: Carpenter-McMillan, Whitehead, Olsons, Bork, Supreme Court decision)

2. The Starr Inquiry Revives (fate of Susan McDougal; the odd background of Linda Tripp; emergence of Lewinsky; Tripp & Starr; Tripp & Jones attorneys; questioning of Monica & perjury trap for Clinton; the story goes public—Drudge Report, Clinton denial, Ginsburg’s bizarre behavior, eventual Lewinsky cooperation, Clinton testimonyàpath to Starr Report; backlash: GOP identification with Starr, Gingrich strategy; Holt, Inslee counterattacks; 1998 election results)

III. Presentation: New York Senate Race

IV. Impeachment & Acquittal

1. Impeachment (election reaction: Gingrich resignation, Judiciary Committee and Starr testimony; impeachment vote without investigation—“grand jury” theme, “Perjury Ladies”; full House votes impeachment, Livingston affairs and resignation)

2. Acquittal (Senate/House tensions; rejection of censure; incompetence of House managers—Lewinsky interview; acquittal and legacy)

Scandal & Success

April 13, 2010

I. Setbacks

1. Political Setbacks (O’Neill retirement and Wright as Speaker, Coelho as Whip—more partisan House leadership; farm revolt—North & South Dakota [Daschle], Colorado: limitations of free-market rhetoric; Democratic comeback in South—limitations of race-based appeals [Henson Moore in Louisiana], limitations of anti-tax rhetoric [attack on “Food-Tax Terry” in North Carolina]; Democratic revival in West—Reid in Nevada, defeat of Gorton in Washington; effects: defeat of Bork nomination)

2. Institutional Setbacks: The Iran-Contra Scandal (Reagan and international terrorism—search for the Iran “moderates” and sale of arms; debate over contra aid—“procedure-itis” and passage of Boland amendment; Casey and contempt of Congress; diversion of funds to contras; Hasenfus and crash; from Lebanon to Washington; Meese investigation; Tower Committee; what was Reagan’s role? Bush’s?; Inouye Committee and North as GOP folk hero)

3. Economic Setbacks (1987 Stock Market “crash”; unsettled economic environment; postwar surge of S&L’s—growth of housing market, expansion of Sunbelt; economic difficulties of 1970s—S&L’s move away from deposits and mortgages; deregulation and declining reporting requirements, increase of risky loans; political influence—ineffective regulation throughout the 1980s, St. Germain, Keating Five, ethics problems; collapse of market and government bailout; effects: bailout and effect on deficit, slowdown in housing market)

II. Success

1. The Cold War Ends (Soviet sclerosis and emergence of Gorbachev; Gorbachev and crumbling of Soviet bloc—perestroika, glasnost; Thatcher and pressing to deal; Reagan reversal: from Reykjavik to arms control; Eastern bloc strategies of survival; economics, Solidarity, and Poland; Hungary and DDR;

2. The 1988 Election (Republicans: Dole & Robertson early challenges; Bush and use of tax charges against Dole—New Hampshire victory and path to nomination; Democrats: Cuomo, Clinton decisions not to runà”Seven Dwarfs”; Gore and “Super Tuesday” ideal; emergence of Jackson; Dukakis triumph; nomination of Bentsen & Quayle; Bush counter-attacks: Willie Horton, Pledge of Allegiance, national defense; debate events; triumph of incumbents)

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The 1980 Elections

March 23, 2010

I. Carter’s Struggles

1. Revolt of the Liberals (Carter, cabinet reshuffle, and sense of disarray; Kennedy appeal & polling lead; Mudd interview; Brown fizzles; Iranian hostage crisis and public rallying around the flag; Lake Placid and surge of patriotism; Carter surge in polls—Iowa, New Hampshire victory, sweeps South; Kennedy comeback and increasingly nasty primary battle; Kennedy call for an open convention; Kennedy New York speech and Democratic disarray)

2. Rise of the Conservatives (the also-rans: Connally and limitations of Southern GOP, Baker and limitations of Southern legislating; Anderson and demise of GOP liberalism; Bush background; Iowa upset and “big mo”; Reagan revival—debates about debate; Anderson, Bush, and New England; Southern sweep and Reagan nomination; continued concerns and Ford co-presidency plan; nomination of Bush; changes in Republican platformàno support for ERA, call for pro-life amendment)

II. The Reagan Realignment

1. Conditions (international rise of conservatives: significance of Thatcher triumph—model for Reagan?; continued international crises—Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Carter decision to boycott Olympics, botched hostage rescue plan; continued economic difficultiesàeffects of Volcker economics, rising unemployment)

2. Fall Campaign (Anderson/Lucey and Carter’s difficulty on the left; Reagan and Southern Strategyàopening campaign in Mississippi; Reagan and appeals to patriotismàstrong defense, anti-communism, economic plan through tax cuts; Carter scare tactics; effects of final debate)

3. The Demise of the Democratic Senate (NCPAC and challenge to Democratic liberals; national security and Church/Symms; excessive spending and campaign against Magnuson; weak Southern Democrats; fall of Midwestern Democrats: McGovern, Bayh, and Nelson; Carter’s early concession and Republican House gains; was 1980 a realigning election: importance of “Reagan Democrats”—Macomb County: from 63 percent for JFK to 66 percent for Reagan)

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Rise of the Right

March 23, 2010

I. The Travails of Jimmy Carter

1. Collapse of the Economy (1976 as mandate-free election: House contests as status quo; major turnover in Senate elections; Carter & Congress; troubles with staff and Washington culture—Bert Lance scandal; energy bill fiasco: what is Carter’s domestic agenda?; economic difficulties in Rust Belt—steel, auto industries; Iranian revolution and second oil shock: inflation, unemployment, deficità”stagflation,” strengthening of Fed, importance of Volcker)

2. Politics and Foreign Policy (Camp David Accords, Panama Canal Treaty—DeConcini and media attention to legislative sausage-making; sense of Western decline—Iran, Nicaragua, Vietnam, Ethiopia)

II. The Emergence of Modern Conservatism

1. Economic Issues (inflation, property taxes, and the origins of the tax revolt; California and Proposition 13: effects of inflation, assessors’ scandals, backlash against Supreme Court school-funding rulings; Jarvis, Gann, and the initiative; opposition of state Democratic Party, public sector unions; Massachusetts: Barbara Anderson and Citizens for Limited Taxation, revolt against liberalism?, final outcome; long-term effects of 13 and 2½: increasing reliance on state aid, shortcomings in education finding, disparate evaluations for property tax in some states; Laffer curve and solidifying the anti-tax ideology; Sagebrush Rebellion and Western libertarianism; beginnings of right-wing public interest law)

2. Social Issues (school prayer, abortion, gay rights; importance of religion: Southern evangelicalism and politics—aftermath of Scopes trial, re-emergence in aftermath of Engel, Carter and normalization of religion in politics, Robertson and 700 Club, Falwell and Moral Majority, alliance with Republican Party; Catholic voters—importance of abortion, 1978 midterm results, election of Pope John Paul and conservative turn among bishops; class divisions—using referenda for goals: Bryant, Briggs Initiative)

3. Foreign Policy/National Security Issues (neoconservatives and critique of “human rights” diplomacy; Jackson, Moynihan and Democratic dissent; formation of NCPAC: importance of Panama Canal Treaty, role in defeat of Clark/McIntyre; 1978 Senate results; Kirkpatrick and ideological rationale for conservative agenda; opposition to SALT II)

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Reform & Rights-Related Liberalism

March 16, 2010

I. The Watergate Class

1. Backgrounds (Toby Moffett and consumer activism; Tim Wirth and environmentalism; Tom Harkin and foreign policy activism; Paul Tsongas and urban revivals; Henry Waxman and political reform; Bob Edgar and good-government liberalism; common nature of districts—suburban, more upper-class, long-time traditionally Republican; earlier junior members—Pat Schroeder and women’s rights, Ron Dellums and peace activism, Fr. Drinan and rule of law)

2. Reforming Congressional Rules (checking committee chairs, giving junior members more power—removal of Hébert; creation of budget committee, CBO, checking impoundment, importance of information; transparency: open meetings, “sunlight” and “sunset” provisions; campaign finance—disclosure and limitations, path to Buckley v. Valeo)

3. Challenging Ford (foreign policy: Vietnam, Clark amendment and Angola, CIA investigation & Church/Pike committees, reducing defense spending, Hughes-Ryan; confronting the executive: ethics laws, FOIA, path to special counsel law)

II. Limits of Reform

1. Economic Issues (1973 oil shock and economic effects: burst of inflation, Ford difficulties in determining response; gas shortages, effect on Rust Belt industries, beginnings of unemployment increases; divisions within Democratic caucus, lack of interest?)

2. Social Issues & Catholic Revolt (busing: J. Arthur Garrity and Boston School system; South Boston and emergence of Louise Day Hicks; national attention and questions about Democratic coalition; abortion: reaction to Roe, path to Hyde amendment; ERA: quick state ratifications, emergence of conservative religious coalition [Catholics, Mormons, evangelical Protestants]; Schlafly and public response—military, protection of women in labor, class divisions)

III. The 1976 Election

1. The Primaries (Democratic frontrunners—Kennedy withdrawal; Humphrey/Wallace indecision; Jackson and neoconservatives; Bentsen/Askew and Southern moderates; Udall as traditional Democratic liberal; Carter and anti-Washington outsider; new Democratic calendar and Iowa caucuses; piggyback victory to New Hampshireàmomentum; Church/Brown late entries; Carter faltering; Republicans: Ford early triumphs; Reagan, Helms, and North Carolina revival, emergence of “Sunbelt,” backfiring of Schweicker gamble)

2. The General Election (Carter initial lead; difficulty in articulating agenda; Ford late surge; debate soundbites—Dole and “Democrat wars,” Ford and Poland; mandate-free victory?; congressional elections)

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Watergate

March 11, 2010

I. Before the Re-Election

1. Nixon and Political Ethics (memories of 1960 and Nixon political culture; origins of “plumbers”—Ellsberg break-in, targeting of Brookings Institution; ethical improprieties in 1972 campaign—CREEP & abuse of IRS, infiltration of Democratic candidacies)

2. Crime & Consequences (CREEP and bugging of DNC headquarters—preoccupation with Kennedy machine; Nixon attempts to obstruct justice—role of CIA, Pat Gray and leaderless FBI, significance of Mark Felt; Watergate in 1972 campaign—ineffective McGovern attacks, Woodward and Bernstein on the case, but disputes at Washington Post, Wright Patman inquiry but bipartisan opposition)

II. Nixon’s Demise

1. The Cover-up Unravels (why didn’t Watergate die?; lower-level judiciary: importance of Sirica and role of plea bargains; press—role of Woodward/Bernstein, Felt’s agenda, and development of public pressure; Nixon’s erratic response—Ehrlichman/Haldeman/Kleindeinst “resignations,” Dean dismissal; Senate—Sam Ervin and role of special Senate committee—importance of national TV, revelation of taping system; special prosecutor—Cox’s agenda; Nixon response: invocation of executive privilege)

2. The Twin Blows (the travails of Spiro Agnew: Maryland politics and culture of corruption, state’s attorney investigation, plea bargain and resignation; Cox and decision to subpoena tapes; Nixon evasion—Saturday Night Massacre; public reaction)

3. The Fall of Nixon (18½ minute gap; House Judiciary Committee and impeachment hearings—significance of Rodino, emergence of Jordan, Drinan; U.S. v. Nixon and Nixon’s resignation; Ford’s decision to pardon)

4. Legacies (partisan politics: 1974 midterm elections and “Watergate class” of House Democrats; media: oversimplification of politics, desire for new Woodward/Bernstein; public opinion: increased cynicism, long-term benefit to GOP?; political culture: demise of Nixon wing of GOP, desire for revenge, increased acceptance of winter-take-all approach to politics)

The Nixon Agenda

March 9, 2010

I. Nixon in the Oval Office

1. International Affairs (redefining the Cold War: Nixon 1960s legacy, role of Kissinger; opening to China, reestablishment of ties; détente with USSR and path to SALT I; conservative skepticism; enraging the left: “credibility” and emphasis on executive authority—Cambodian incursion, resisting McGovern-Hatfield, Pentagon Papers case; massive public protests—Kent State, Moratorium Day; but also Vietnamization, ending draft)

2. Nixon & the Economy (disinterest and political requirements—avoiding tough choices: increasing domestic spending, wage-and-price controls, ending Bretton Woods system; but also imaginative ideas—welfare proposal, national health care concept & Kennedy rejection)

II. Nixon as Political Polarizer

1. Race (Southern Strategy, “strict constructionism,” and judicial nominations—Burger, Haynsworth, Carswell, Rehnquist; school busing: civil rights movement and Northern segregation, class issue—Detroit, Nixon response)

2. Culture (glorification of hardhat: hardhat riot, divisions within organized labor, Nixon attempts to appeal; but also origins of feminist movement—Republican Party and ERA, abortion rights)

III. 1972

1. The Democrats’ Implosion (McGovern-Fraser Commission and changing of Democrats’ nominating rules; Muskie appeal—support from labor, criticism of war, ethnic and religious background; dirty tricks and “Canuck letter,” Union-Leader and “crying incident,” Muskie decline)

2. The Party Polarizes (revival of Democratic right—Jackson and origins of neoconservatism, Wallace back in party—surge before assassination attempt; emergence of McGovern—appeal to youth, liberals, good-government types, beneficiary of new rules; late Humphrey challenge; Miami fiasco—Daley expulsion, late nomination, Eagleton withdrawal)

3. Fall and Beyond (benefiting from international climate—trip to China, late Vietnam peace; attacks on McGovern—“acid, amnesty, and abortion”; promise of stability; Southern sweep, including Senate races; but limits of appeal—1972 freshman class [Clark, Abourezk, Hathaway, Haskell, Biden])

History 417

The 1968 Election

March 4, 2010

I. LBJ’s Decline

1. A Challenger Emerges (Allard Lowenstein and search for a candidate; lobbying RFK; moral and tactical argument—favorable campaign calendar, opening to Daley?; RFK temporizes, decides not to run; McGovern, Church decline; drafting of McCarthy—unusual nature of “anti-war” candidate; LBJ’s political strengths)

2. Tet & New Hampshire (Tet and emergence of “credibility gap”; importance of media response; what constitutes victory?; “clean for Gene” and McCarthy concentration on NH; LBJ stand-in strategy and shortcomings of Gov. King; McCarthy’s NH “victory”; who were McCarthy’s voters?; RFK decision to enter; LBJ withdrawal)

II. The Democratic Race

1. The Kennedy Campaign (RFK’s evolving image—African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans; the Kennedy coalition & appeal to ethnic Democrats, some party leaders; string of primary victories and McCarthy bitterness; Humphrey attempts to rally party activists; Oregon and McCarthy revival; California and RFK assassination; what if?)

2. The Chicago Convention (Ted Kennedy’s decision not to run; McGovern’s late entrance; McCarthy collapse; Humphrey and “politics of joy”; disruptive tactics and Daley over-reaction; convention chaos; Humphrey polling weakness)

III. Realignment and the Fall Campaign

1. Setting the Agenda (Nixon’s comeback: support among Republican officeholders, Romney faux pas, Rockefeller& Reagan seen as too extreme, nomination of Agnew; “silent majority” and “Southern Strategy”: role of Buchanan and Phillips; Wallace and creating the AIP; setting the agenda: right-wing populism, anti-elitism, crime, affirmative action, nationalism; polling surge: could Wallace pass Humphrey?; Nixon as more moderate alternative?)

2. The Outcome (Humphrey revival: Salt Lake City speech, Muskie appeal, consolidating the shrunken Democratic base; Wallace ceiling: third-party dilemma, LeMay nomination and “Bombsey Twins”;     Nixon’s Rose-Garden strategy; Paris Peace breakthrough and Humphrey revival?; murky Nixon involvement; possibility of race to House of Reps.; Nixon victory and deceptively close nature of vote)

The Demise of the New Deal Coalition

March 2, 2010

I . The Great Society

1 . LBJ & the 89th Congress (completing the civil rights agenda—Voting Rights Act of 1965 [abolish literacy tests, directed poll tax challenge, Section 5 & preclearance]; expanding the New Deal—Medicare, Medicaid and the path to national health insurance, conservative opposition and concerns about “socialized medicine,” passage of bill; creation of NEH and NEA)

2. The Welfare State (American welfare policy—Progressive Era legacy, emphasis on children, expansion AFDC, Head Start; Community Action Program—theory and practice, legal aid service for poor [Gideon v. Wainwright], reaction among Democratic machine politicians, RFK & Shriver, backlash; tax-and-spend, beginnings of deficits and inflationary surge, LBJ personality)

II. Beginnings of Backlash

1. Housing (housing and the public accommodations debate—red-lining in Northern cities; 1964 California: origins of Rumford Act; California Real Estate Association and path to Proposition 14; Prop 14 vote and fate of Salinger; Prop 14 & LBJ vote; 1966 Maryland: legacy of Wallace campaign & Dixiecrat base on Eastern Shore, Baltimore and ethnic politics; emergence of George Mahoney—relationship with Catholic diocese, business & trade union backgroundà”Your Home Is Your Castle—Protect It,” Agnew victory; Chicago, New York difficulties)

2. Urban Riots (race, class, and police—New York City riots 1964, LBJ response; Watts and American national consciousness; string of riots; emergence of “law and order” issueàconservative critique of Warren Court [Mapp, Miranda], crime and race; 1966 midterms, role of Nixon; MLK and carrying campaign to the North)

III. Vietnam

1. Dilemmas of Limited War (South Vietnamese political instability and LBJ decision to Americanize the conflict; tensions in military strategy—bombing campaign, McNamara, Westmoreland, and “body count,” consistent PRC threat; draft and expansion of U.S. troops)

2. Politics of War (Republicans and the war—criticism from the right, unleash the military; Democratic divisions—liberals and bombing (Church, McGovern, Nelson, then Kennedy), Fulbright hearings, student protests, emergence of peace movement, LBJ and consolidating pro-war Democrats)

History 417

The 1964 Election

25 February 2010

I. The Foundations

1. The Republican Race (the race before assassination; Goldwater and Rockefeller weaknesses; Nixon, Scranton bids?, Smith declares candidacy; the emergence of Lodge; New Hampshire primary & administration response; Lodge, Goldwater, and contrasting nomination strategies; essence of Lodge appeal; Oregon and Lodge collapse; California primary and death of GOP moderates; Goldwater nomination and 1964 convention)

2. LBJ Strengths & Weaknesses (potential pitfalls: ethics—“Landslide Lyndon,” personal wealth, Bobby Baker scandal, John Williams; racial backlash: emergence of George Wallace—Indiana and Wisconsin primaries, appeal among Northern ethnics, Maryland primary and Democratic weakness, Wallace and alliance with Goldwater?; Kennedy and vice presidency: background of relationship, RFK and Justice Department; open pressure and LBJ response; decision to exclude; uncertainty over V-P nomination)

II. The Outcome

1. The Frontlash Agenda (LBJ hopes and targeted constituencies; liberals and the 1964 convention—controversy over the Tuck bill; consolidating the civil rights base—MFDP controversy and the convention; choosing a vice-presidential nominee; neutralizing Goldwater— Tonkin Gulf Resolution, nuclear weapons, election as mandate for peace agenda; economics and how to tailor a Democratic agenda?; limitations of the frontlash approach—“LBJ for the USA,” reliance on negative advertising)

2. The Jenkins Scandal (polls and LBJ vulnerabilities; Baker/McCloskey affair; arrest and reaction—role of Fortas; Lady Bird response; Hoover and continuing fears; election outcome—coattails and transformation of House; ideology and a hollow victory?)

Totals: LBJ:                  61% popular vote        486 electoral votes

Goldwater:      38.5% popular vote     52 electoral votes

History 417

LBJ Takes Charge

23 February 2010

I. Transition to LBJ

King & Civil Rights (Birmingham and Operation “C”; role of Bull Connor; sit-ins, boycott, arrest of King; controversy over women and children protesters; church combing; public and media response)

2. Road to the Civil Rights Act (King and origins of March on Washington; tensions within the movement—generational, ideological, racial; success of the March; bill’s focus on public accommodations; indecision about tactics; continued legislative obstacles; Kennedy legacy?)

3. Assassination and Aftermath (LBJ background; LBJ as political tactician; appointment of Warren Commission and effort to heal nation; LBJ & adjourning politics; defining success as passage of legislation)

II. Establishing an Image

1. Politics and Policy (taking charge with the tax bill—lobbying Byrd, lobbying business, moving beyond Democrats as tax-and-spend liberals, deficits and long-term implications: “guns and butter” debate; poverty and Shriver appointment—vagueness of agenda, Michigan “great society” speech; farm bill and cynical politics—lobbying Cooley, appealing to wheat state senators, food stamp program and long-term effects of bill; overall legislative record)

2. Civil Rights Act of 1964 (LBJ & the Southern caucusàimportance of Richard Russell; focus on public accommodations; indecision about tactics; indecision about constitutional justification;  provisions: outlaw racial discrimination in public accommodations, give Justice Dept. authority to file suits for school desegregation in federal court, create EEOC)

History 417

The Kennedy Agenda

16 February 2010

I. Crisis Presidency

1 . Kennedy and the Cold War (Kennedy’s international agenda—“missile gap,” counterinsurgency, confronting Soviets and Chinese in the Third World; Cuba, Castro, and the 1960 campaign; origins of Bay of Pigs invasion; MONGOOSE and aftermath; Berlin and East-West tensions: nature of East German state, problems of migration and Khrushchev threats, nuclear confrontation?; Vienna summit and crisis atmosphere; building of Berlin Wallàlong-term effects)

2. Crisis Results (expansion of military budget; increasing U.S. military commitment in Vietnam; origins of Cuban Missile Crisis; ExComm and resolution of crisis; Cuba and political matters—election of 1962)

3. “Corporate Liberalism” (1961: expansion of Rules Committee, gradual liberalization of House; Kennedy and Keynes—origins of tax-cut proposal; Comsat and limitations of populist rhetoric; difficulties with Congress and limitations for Kennedy agenda; preparing for 1964 election)

II. Kennedy and Civil Rights

1. Up to Speed (Court action and its limits; executive initiative; Kennedy record and political concerns—nature of 1960s Democratic Party [Eastland as example], backtracking on promise to desegregate public housing; significance of bureaucracy—Wofford, Marshall, power of Justice Department, transformation of RFK; forcing the issue—CORE, Freedom Rides, and role of federal marshals)

2. Crises (Meredith and integration of Ole Miss—administration response, national and international reaction; NAACP and Civil Rights Division support; riots and federal military intervention; Wallace and demagoguery—Integrating the University of Alabama; political costs; Birmingham and Operation “C”; role of Bull Connor; sit-ins, boycott, arrest of King; controversy over women and children protesters; church combing; public and media response)

3. Road to the Civil Rights Act (King and origins of March on Washington; tensions within the movement—generational, ideological, racial; success of the March; bill’s focus on public accommodations; indecision about tactics; continued legislative obstacles; Kennedy legacy?)

History 417

1960 Election

11 February 2010

I. The Nomination Battles

1. Democrats (key contenders: JFK, Humphrey, LBJ, Jackson, Symington; uniformity of message—more vigorous government, more aggressive countering of USSR, generational transition; tactical choices—LBJ and confidence in party machinery, Jackson/Symington & hope for brokered convention; Kennedy/Humphrey & need to use primariesàKennedy and Catholic problem [legacy of Al Smith], Humphrey and perception of excessive liberalism; Wisconsin and religious divide, West Virginia and decisive JFK victory; outmaneuvering LBJ; path to nomination; convention bitterness; LBJ vice-presidential nomination and contested memories)

2. Republicans (Nixon & redefinition of vice-presidency—negotiations with Congress, hard-line foreign policy views, “Kitchen Debate” with Khrushchev; Nixon problems—“Tricky Dick,” polarizing political position, complicated relationship with Eisenhower; Rockefeller challenge—strengths (money, electability), weaknesses (domestic liberalism); Nixon nomination; Goldwater convention speech and origins of future conservative challenge; Lodge vice-presidential nominationàcampaign on seriousness, national security)

II. The General Election

1 . Turning Points (aftereffects of 1958 elections; Kennedy and Houston speech—attempts to neutralize religious issue; Nixon and 50-state campaign promise—use of jet travel, inefficient allocation of time; similarity of messages & importance of image; role of first debate; Eisenhower quip)

2. To the End (King arrest & changing nature of politics of race; Kennedy, Nixon responses; LBJ & keeping Southerners in line; tightness of election night contest, improper network calls; Kennedy victory; why did Kennedy win?; what was legacy of election?)

History 417

The Emergence of the Civil Rights Movement

9 February 2010

I. Eisenhower and Civil Rights

1. The NAACP and “Separate-but-Equal” (NAACP & legacy of Washington/DuBois dispute; failure of politics: anti-lynching legislation and the power of the Southern filibuster; Huston and origins of LDF; challenging separate but equal: education—Missouri v. GainesSweatt v. PainterMcLaurin v. Oklahoma; elections—Smith v. Allwright; housing—Shelley v. Kramer)

2. Brown (filing of cases and path to Supreme Court; Kenneth Clark and role of social science; Vinson and divided Supreme Court; Vinson death & nomination of Warren; Warren background and idea of politicians on Supreme Court; reargument and path to unanimous decision

3. Reaction to Brown (Eisenhower and origins of massive resistance; defiance: Virginia as example; Brown II and implementation of a timetable; Southern Manifesto and congressional response; Little Rock: Orval Faubus and overt challenge to federal authority—sending of troops, AR response—close schools unless popular vote to allow integration)

II. Civil Rights in the Congress

1. Montgomery (Southern grassroots and realities of Jim Crow system—economic, social, racial discrimination; role of Black church; Rosa Parks arrest and path to Montgomery Bus Boycott; emergence of King and philosophy of nonviolence)

2. Political Response (Brownell and response to Birmingham Bus Boycott—how to handle private/economic discrimination; 1956 bill and difficulties in Congress: House—Rules Committee and Judge Smith, lack of black political power—Adam Clayton Powell; Senate—Eastland elevation and tradition of filibuster; LBJ, political ambition, and path to 1957 Civil Rights Act; significance of Russell; debate over jury-trial amendment—role of Frank Church)

3. Polarization (generational split—SNCC, Greensboro, origins of sit-in tactic; white response—citizens’ committees, Southern politics in 1950s—gubernatorial demagogues, “white citizens’ council”; lack of black political power)

History 417

McCarranism & McCarthyism

2 February 2010

I. The Foundations of Anti-Communism

1. The Truman Doctrine (Congress and foreign aid; Britain, Greece, and Turkey; decision to frame aid request broadly; continuing tensions—Czechoslovakia, Berlin Blockade, Communist triumph in China)

2. Anti-Communism & the Postwar Political Culture (WWII legacy and fears of a “Fifth Column”; Stalin and “Popular Front” strategy—Spanish civil war, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, formation of Comintern; spy scares—Fuchs and atomic bomb, Hiss, Rosenbergs, “Cambridge Four”; paranoid style of American politics, anti-communism and anti-semitism)

II. The McCarran Agenda

1. Internal Security (HUAC and internal security proposals; congressional stalemate; McCarran background; Judiciary Committee and congressional power; McCarran Internal Security Act—Truman veto, congressional override)

2. Expanding the Agenda (creation of Senate Internal Security Subcommittee; 1951 hearings into IPR and “communist” influence in NYC; McCarran and immigration—displaced persons bill, 1952 McCarran-Walter Act; death and long-term impact)

III. McCarthyism

1. Partisanship and Emergence (McCarthy background; Wheeling address and State Department response; partisan split in Senate investigation; Margaret Chase Smith “declaration of conscience”; Korea and domestic frustrations; 1950 elections: Pepper/Smathers, Smith/Graham, Douglas/Nixon, defeat of Tydings & legend of McCarthy)

2. Rise (dismissal of MacArthur and popular reaction against Truman; McCarthy and attacks on State Dept. “communists”; 1952 election—criticisms of Marshall; PIS and Chairman McCarthy; Schine-Cohn European tour; Eisenhower responses—JF Dulles and State Dept. purge, Allen Dulles and expansion of “executive privilege”)

3. Fall (investigation of Peress, drafting of Schine, and origins of Army-McCarthy hearings; television exposure—hearings, Edward R. Murrow; Senate censure and death)

History 417

Introduction: America in 1950

28 January 2010

Course website: https://kc-johnson.com/

My email: kcjohnson9@gmail.com

My cell: 207-329-8456

Office hours: Tuesdays, 5.30-6.30pm, Thursdays, 2.30-3.30pm, in Whitehead 501

I. Course Outline

II. The State of Affairs

1. National Politics (FDR and creation of New Deal coalition: Southern whites, African-Americans, liberals, ethnic voters; World War II and GOP divisions—decline of isolationists, Hayek and modern conservativism, question of reconciling with or attacking New Deal state; postwar backlash against Democrats—declining congressional majorities after 1938, 1946 elections and Republicans claim Congress, precedents: is Truman finished?; 1948 GOP primary: Taft, Stassen, Dewey—fate of Communist Party, role of primaries, dispute between Northeastern elites and GOP base; Truman and 1948 convention—Wallace, Thurmond split; Truman upset victory—role of populism, campaign strategy, Dems recapture Congress)

2. Federal Government (New Deal and struggles of US economy; World War II and growth of federal budgetàdefense spending, Manhattan Project; OPA and increased government regulation of business; overall expansion of executive branch—FDR and 4th term, size of staff; GI Bill and foundations of new middle class; postwar inflation and economic dislocations, labor unrest; Taft-Hartley and “right-to-work” concept—checking the power of unions; Truman and Fair Dealàfederal housing programs, medical insurance; AMA and “socialized medicine”)

3. Cold War & US Political Culture (background to US-Soviet relationship: intervention, nonrecognition, Joseph Davies and other extreme, FDR & Stalin during WWII; spy scares—Igor Gouzenko, Elizabeth Bentley; Truman and Federal Employee Loyalty Program; HUAC 1947-8 inquiries; Communists and US labor movement—1947 UAW showdown, triumph of Reuther; effects on minority groups—homosexuals, civil rights organizations)

4. Minority Rights (WWII and demographic shifts—women in workforce, consolidation of African-American migration, A. Philip Randolph & threatened march on Washington—creation of FEPC; postwar developments–“baby boom,” emphasis on nuclear families; civil rights: bypassing Congress—executive orders [Truman E.O. 9981], civil rights plank in Dem platform, NAACP and use of courts— Smith v. Allwright, Sweatt v. Painter; Cold War and transformation of civil rights movement—decline of Pan-Africanism, stress on propaganda angle, isolation of DuBois)

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