KC Johnson

March 18: The United States & An Unstable Middle East (1969-1978)

  • Ashton article, “Pulling the Strings: King Hussein’s Role during the Crisis of 1970 in Jordan,” International History Review, pp. 94-118.
  • Noam Kochavi, “Insights Abandoned, Flexibility Lost: Kissinger, Soviet Jewish Emigration, and the Demise of Détente,” Diplomatic History, pp. 503-530.
  • Rudiger Graf, “Making Use of the Oil Weapon,” Diplomatic History, pp. 185-208.
  • Roham Alvandi, “Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah: The Origins of Iranian Primacy in the Persian Gulf,” Diplomatic History, pp. 337-372.
  • Fiona B. Adamson, “Democratization and the Domestic Sources of Foreign Policy: Turkey in the 1974 Cyprus Crisis,” Political Science Quarterly, pp. 277-303.
Documents:
Nixon on Kissinger’s attitude toward Israel, early 1973
Administration’s rationalization for Israeli airlift, and its effects:


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Kissinger chats with a congressional delegation over the effects of the aid cutoff to Turkey, 1975.
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Camp David Accords (1978):

In order to achieve peace between them, Israel and Egypt agree to negotiate in good faith with a goal of concluding within three months of the signing of this framework a peace treaty between them:

It is agreed that:

  • The site of the negotiations will be under a United Nations flag at a location or locations to be mutually agreed.
  • All of the principles of U.N. Resolution 242 will apply in this resolution of the dispute between Israel and Egypt.
  • Unless otherwise mutually agreed, terms of the peace treaty will be implemented between two and three years after the peace treaty is signed.
  • The following matters are agreed between the parties:
    1. the full exercise of Egyptian sovereignty up to the internationally recognized border between Egypt and mandated Palestine;
    2. the withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from the Sinai;
    3. the use of airfields left by the Israelis near al-Arish, Rafah, Ras en-Naqb, and Sharm el-Sheikh for civilian purposes only, including possible commercial use only by all nations;
    4. the right of free passage by ships of Israel through the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal on the basis of the Constantinople Convention of 1888 applying to all nations; the Strait of Tiran and Gulf of Aqaba are international waterways to be open to all nations for unimpeded and nonsuspendable freedom of navigation and overflight;
    5. the construction of a highway between the Sinai and Jordan near Eilat with guaranteed free and peaceful passage by Egypt and Jordan; and
    6. the stationing of military forces listed below.

Stationing of Forces

  • No more than one division (mechanized or infantry) of Egyptian armed forces will be stationed within an area lying approximately 50 km. (30 miles) east of the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal.
  • Only United Nations forces and civil police equipped with light weapons to perform normal police functions will be stationed within an area lying west of the international border and the Gulf of Aqaba, varying in width from 20 km. (12 miles) to 40 km. (24 miles).
  • In the area within 3 km. (1.8 miles) east of the international border there will be Israeli limited military forces not to exceed four infantry battalions and United Nations observers.
  • Border patrol units not to exceed three battalions will supplement the civil police in maintaining order in the area not included above.
  • The exact demarcation of the above areas will be as decided during the peace negotiations.
  • Early warning stations may exist to insure compliance with the terms of the agreement.
  • United Nations forces will be stationed:
    1. in part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 km. of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the international border, and
    2. in the Sharm el-Sheikh area to insure freedom of passage through the Strait of Tiran; and these forces will not be removed unless such removal is approved by the Security Council of the United Nations with a unanimous vote of the five permanent members.
  • After a peace treaty is signed, and after the interim withdrawal is complete, normal relations will be established between Egypt and Israel, including full recognition, including diplomatic, economic and cultural relations; termination of economic boycotts and barriers to the free movement of goods and people; and mutual protection of citizens by the due process of law.

Interim Withdrawal

Between three months and nine months after the signing of the peace treaty, all Israeli forces will withdraw east of a line extending from a point east of El-Arish to Ras Muhammad, the exact location of this line to be determined by mutual agreement.

Video:

Introduction to Jimmy Carter’s national energy address. He wasn’t exactly the most dynamic speaker, as you’ll see. The clip is a little over 4 minutes long.

  • NBC news coverage, OPEC announcement of oil embargo:

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