KC Johnson

308 Lectures



History 308

Introduction

1 September 2009

I. Course Requirements

1. Exams & Quizzes

2. Reading

3. NSC Group Assignment

II. Course Outline

1. Early Years (1713—Utrecht Treaty; colonial foundations—commerce, intellectual exchange, 18th century wars; Indian nations; status under international law)

2. Wars of Independence (significance of American Revolution; role of international assistance; Haiti’s significance; international factors in Spanish-American independence)

3. Expansionism & Its Effects (Mexican War; Caribbean instability and international intrigue; gradual decline of Haiti; new importance of Central America)

4. Late 19th Century (South American wars; transformation of U.S. interests; debate over expansionism in United States; transition to 20th century)

5. World Affairs and the Hemisphere (Mexican Revolution & World War I; postwar period and emergence of anti-imperialism issue; depression and South America; World War II and its effects)

6. Cold War and the Hemisphere (emergence of Cold War; dictatorships and anti-communism; Guatemala and Bay of Pigs; role of JFK and LBJ periods)

7. Human Rights (Nixon and Chile; rise of military dictatorships; Congress, Carter, and Cold War; the Nicaragua battle; Reagan and end of Cold War; democratic wave)

8. Post-Cold War Era (Cuba and collapse of Soviet Union; Panama and asserting U.S. might; Chavez coup and dawning of new international agenda; Haiti and democracy; new issues—globalization, trade, drugs; successes and failures of Bush years)

9. Issues at Play (Venezuela; Mexico; Brazil; Colombia; Cuba; Populist “Democracies”)

History 30.8
Continental Expansionism
8 September 2009

I. A Divided Hemisphere?

1. Latin America (collapse of Panama Congress; US role; South America and balance of power diplomacy—Uruguayan war—British mediation and indpce, Peru/Bolivia disputes, collapse of Gran Colombia; Britain and financial penetration of SA—end of Atlantic system?; Poyais affair; Central America and the failure of union; Mexico and economic difficulties—Coatsworth thesis—removal of Spa subsidies; rise of economic nationalism—Haiti, Paraguay—Jose Gaspar Francia, Carlos Lopez)

2. The British Factor (abolitionism, the Slave Trade, and British diplomacy; Central American expansionism—Miskito Coast, British Honduras; activities of British agents; Canada and boundary tensions with U.S.—Fenians, Aroostook War—Madawaska central city—called “Sin Town” on British maps; tune: Onward! My lads so brave and true; Our country’s right demands With justice, and with glory fight; For these Aroostook lands! (to tune of Auld Lang Syne); Oregon; other European powers—France in Haiti, Mexico; Spain in Dominican Republic)

3. U.S. Diplomacy (Andrew Jackson and American nationalism; Indian removal—Cherokee case as precedent for later action?; development of racial Anglo-Saxonism; domestic politics—2nd American party system: Jacksonian Democrats vs. Whigs, differences over violence, military, presidential power; legacy of Henry Clay)

II. The Diplomatic Effects

1. Texas Diplomacy (the Texas-Mexico War; independent Texas and a North American balance of power?; Mexico and French expansionism in the Caribbean Basin; slavery and collapse of Anglo-Texan alliance; Texas annexation and Tyler constitutional shift)

2. Slavery and Expansion (Haiti and American politics; John Quincy Adams and gag rule; partisanship and expansionism; Walker response; failure of Texas treaty; Van Buren, Polk, and changing nature of Democratic Party; Clay and 1844 campaign; effects of Birney)

3. Strategic and Ideological Expansionism (Polk’s continental vision; Oregon compromise and political effects; movement toward war; constitutional crisis; Giddings and growth of anti-slavery radicals; military success and political difficulties; use of appropriations power–Wilmot Proviso, war credits debate, Corwin and Calhoun, collapse of legislative support; Trist and end of war; war and 1848 election)

History 30.8
The International Scramble for the Caribbean
10 September 2009

I. The Polk Legacy

1. Beyond Mexico (transisthmian canal: Bidlack’s Treaty and origin of US-Colombian relations; failures in Mexico and Central America–Tehuantepec concept, Hise Treaty, Vanderbilt, and changing nature of US-Nicaraguan relations; Cuba and strategic gateway to Caribbean–renewed American attention and growing opposition)

2. Last Chance for the Whigs (Taylor, Clayton, and desires for compromise: domestic need for bi-sectional alliance, international pro-British approach; to the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty–alternative approach to hemispheric affairs: how to interpret?; weaknesses: international vagueness, domestic filibustering, New Orleans jury; Taylor death, emergence of Webster, and “guano war”)

II. Beyond Polk

1. Franklin Pierce’s Hemisphere (Pierce and Democratic party; divisions between Kansas and Cuba; domestic choices; Hale dissent; Ostend Manifesto; creation of Republican Party; Walker and Nicaragua—decision to recognize & domestic concerns; how should historians interpret?)

2. James Buchanan’s Hemisphere (Buchanan background, foreign policy vision; problems—erratic nature of Congress; constitutionalism and Buchanan’s international agenda: pressing the British on Clayton-Bulwer, annexationism in Mexico; Paraguay and Collamer amendment; $30 million bill; use-of-force bill; the effects of Buchanan’s failure)

3. The U.S. Civil War and the Western Hemisphere (Lincoln, Seward, and initial rivalry; nationalism as antidote to disunion?—Seward proposal re Dominican Republic; role of “soft power”—symbolic acts: U.S. recognition of Haiti, Emancipation Proclamation, Latin American sympathy for Union; war and regional balance of power—Spanish in Dominican Republic, French in Mexico, U.S. response; end of war and muscular diplomacy—Mexico & Juarez; new rationale for expansion?—Alaska purchase, role of coaling stations)

History 30.8
The Battle Over Expansionism
10 September 2009

I. The U.S. Civil War and the Western Hemisphere

1.  (Lincoln, Seward, and initial rivalry; nationalism as antidote to disunion?—Seward proposal re Dominican Republic; role of “soft power”—symbolic acts: U.S. recognition of Haiti, Emancipation Proclamation, Latin American sympathy for Union; war and regional balance of power—Spanish in Dominican Republic, French in Mexico, U.S. response; end of war and muscular diplomacy—Mexico & Juarez; new rationale for expansion?—Alaska purchase, role of coaling stations)

2. The Transformation of American Politics (Reconstruction and its effects: failure of Radicals’ reforms; impeachment and weakening of presidency; economic changes and gradual transformation of Republican Party; from slavery to Jim Crow—Democrats and States’ Rights, foreign policy effects; intense partisanship and Gilded Age politics; role of the tariff)

II. The Reintegration of South America

1. 19th Century Wars (Paraguayan War: legacy of Lopez xenophobia; search for outlet to sea; attempt to play off Argentina & Brazil; course of war and impact on Southern Cone; War of the Pacific: legacy of colonial era—continued boundary tensions on Pacific Coast; emergence of Chile; course of war—military mismatch, collapse of Peruvian government, with whom can Chile negotiate?; settlement’s effects—Tacna and Arica dispute, landlocked Bolivia, discovery of copper in new Chilean north)

2. South America and the Powers (Chilean power and 1891 war scare with U.S.; effects on U.S.-Chilean relations, effects on U.S. national security policy; transformation of Brazil—abolition of slavery, end of empire, movement toward pro-U.S. foreign policy; Southern Cone and globalization: European immigration, European trade, role of Britain; coming together with Venezuela affair—boundary dispute with Guyana and discovery of gold, Venezuelan response and U.S. lobbying effort, political aftereffects of Miskito Coast; replacement of Gresham with Olney; legacy)

3. The Cuban War (Cuba and the Spanish empire; earlier revolt and U.S. policy; U.S. economy penetration; renewed revolt; McKinley and decision for war—historiographical debates; war and U.S. public opinion; McKinley decisions [Cuba, Philippines, and Puerto Rico] and debate)

History 30.8
Prewar Hemispheric Affairs
17 September 2009

I. TR and the Western Hemisphere

1. TR Reputation (muscular image; pre-presidential background and succession of McKinley; demise of Clayton-Bulwer Treaty; Panama—French canal company’s failure, re-emergence of interest after Spanish-American War; negotiations with Colombia; breakdown and decision to sponsor rebellion; violation of Bidlack’s Treaty; poisonous effects on hemisphere)

2. Alternatives to Intervention (2nd Cuban intervention; Dominican Republic and customs receivership—model for future?; why no continuation of imperialism?; progressivism: efficiency, apolitical solutions to political problems, use of public relations?; constitutional and partisan limitations)

3. Progressive United States and South America (2nd Venezuela crisis and diplomatic bluff; international law in the pre-WWI era; significance of Elihu Root—emergence of “Pan American” spirit; confronting a new South America—demographic shifts, economic expansion of Argentina, continuing diplomatic tensions Chile/Peru;)

II. Taft and Hemispheric Affairs

1. The Taft Agenda (Taft background: appointed positions, significance of law in personal belief system; reputation and 1908 election; economics and hemispheric vision—Canadian trade pact, Taft’s domestic weaknesses and political bungling; dollar diplomacy and its shortcomings—nature of State Department [Knox, Huntington-Wilson]; nature of theory—how to attract investment given limitations of government authority; Nicaragua and U.S. occupation—political tensions, from Zelaya to Diaz, role of Miskito Coast)

2. The Mexican Revolution and Hemispheric Affairs (after Juarez: the Diaz dictatorship, the scientificos and foreign investment; 1900-onwards concern with excessive U.S. investment and opening to Europe; Britain and Mexican oilfields; 1908 election and emergence of Madero; Madero rebellion, Diaz ouster, and continued instability; U.S. policy and importance of Henry Lane Wilson; British policy and significance of agents; Germany and the hemisphere; U.S. and the coup)

History 308

Battle over Empire

24 September 2009

I. World War I and Latin America

1. Mexico (internal instability and Villa raid; Wilson response—effects?; Zimmerman Telegram and legacy of German interventionism; adoption of Article 27; Carranza deposed and Fall initiative to intervene)

2. Aftereffects (South America: disruption trade patterns and investment support, practical effects on ABC balance of power; Article 21 and League of Nations—significance in international law, significance in inter-American relations; Haiti and Dominican Republic—uprisings in aftermath of Wilsonianism; U.S. response; Senate and Haiti issue—role of NAACP, 1920 presidential campaign)

II. After Wilson

1. The Haitian Affair (U.S. political changes: collapse of Democrats; emergence of peace progressives; Senate of 1920s—significance of Borah; Haiti and a transnational anti-imperialist alliance—The Nation, Ernest Gruening; Senate inquiry and cosmetic changes—appointment of Borno; King amendment; Dominican compromise)

2. Crossroads of Empire (Coolidge, Kellogg, Sheffield, and re-emergence of difficulties with Mexico; Obregon, Calles, and PRI: importance of nationalism; international law, Article 27, and Saenz-Kellogg notes; Kellogg gambit and Senate response)

3. Nicaragua (failure of Tipitapa Accords and emergence of Sandino; creation of anti-imperialist coalition: peace movement—FOR, WILPF; anti-imperialist journalists—Gruening, Beals; cultural activists—CCLA, CCRLA; using congressional power—Blaine and Dill amendments; Stimson concession—1931 changes in intervention policy)

4. South America and Economic Diplomacy (World War I and changing balance of financial power—from London to New York; South America and Kemmerer missions—purpose and effects; significance of Pan-American conferences; cultivating hemispheric public opinion—role of Argentina)

History 308

Empire & Imperialism

24 September 2009

I. After Wilson

1. Caribbean Basin (Haiti and a transnational anti-imperialist alliance; emergence of Mexico—Obregon, Calles, and PRI: importance of nationalism; significance of Pan-American conferences; cultivating hemispheric public opinion; Costa Rica and anti-imperialism; Nicaragua and Sandino; 1928 Havana Conference)

2. US Diplomacy (regionalism; South America and Kemmerer missions; Mexico: international law, Article 27, and Saenz-Kellogg notes; Caribbean: formal and informal colonization; Central America: significance of Nicaragua and failure of Tipitapa Accords)

3. US Domestic (collapse of Democrats; Albert Fall and 1919 bid for intervention; emergence of peace progressives; Senate of 1920s; Borah and Mexican Revolution; anti-imperialist coalition—peace movement—FOR, WILPF; anti-imperialist journalists—Gruening, Beals; cultural activists—CCLA, CCRLA; using congressional power—Blaine and Dill amendments; Stimson concession—1931 changes in intervention policy)

History 308

Battle over Empire

24 September 2009

I. World War I and Latin America

1. Mexico (internal instability and Villa raid; Wilson response—effects?; Zimmerman Telegram and legacy of German interventionism; adoption of Article 27; Carranza deposed and Fall initiative to intervene)

2. Aftereffects (South America: disruption trade patterns and investment support, practical effects on ABC balance of power; Article 21 and League of Nations—significance in international law, significance in inter-American relations; Haiti and Dominican Republic—uprisings in aftermath of Wilsonianism; U.S. response; Senate and Haiti issue—role of NAACP, 1920 presidential campaign)

II. After Wilson

1. The Haitian Affair (U.S. political changes: collapse of Democrats; emergence of peace progressives; Senate of 1920s—significance of Borah; Haiti and a transnational anti-imperialist alliance—The Nation, Ernest Gruening; Senate inquiry and cosmetic changes—appointment of Borno; King amendment; Dominican compromise)

2. Crossroads of Empire (Coolidge, Kellogg, Sheffield, and re-emergence of difficulties with Mexico; Obregon, Calles, and PRI: importance of nationalism; international law, Article 27, and Saenz-Kellogg notes; Kellogg gambit and Senate response)

3. Nicaragua (failure of Tipitapa Accords and emergence of Sandino; creation of anti-imperialist coalition: peace movement—FOR, WILPF; anti-imperialist journalists—Gruening, Beals; cultural activists—CCLA, CCRLA; using congressional power—Blaine and Dill amendments; Stimson concession—1931 changes in intervention policy)

4. South America and Economic Diplomacy (World War I and changing balance of financial power—from London to New York; South America and Kemmerer missions—purpose and effects; significance of Pan-American conferences; cultivating hemispheric public opinion—role of Argentina)

History 308

The Depression and Hemispheric Affairs

1 October 2009

I. South American Instability

1. South America and Economic Diplomacy (World War I and changing balance of financial power—from London to New York; South America and Kemmerer missions—purpose and effects; significance of Pan-American conferences; cultivating hemispheric public opinion—role of Argentina)

2. Hemispheric Strategic Threats (new international environment—Fascist triumphs in Europe and Asia; Brazil: the collapse of the First Republic and the emergence of Vargas; Green Shirts and local fascism; Vargas and German foreign economic policy; balance between domestic and international goals; Argentina: emigration patterns, local instability, German foreign policy)

3. The Chaco War (legacy of colonial-era boundary disputes; legacy of 19th century wars; discovery of nearby oil and Bolivian pressing of claims; role of foreign powers—Kundt in Bolivia, Argentines in Paraguay; course of war—air power, tanks, Paraguayan maneuverability; Mussolini assistance to Paraguayans; Paraguay and League; long-term effects)

II. The Caribbean Basin & the Good Neighbor Diplomacy

1. Bureaucratic Alternatives (FDR background and commitments; Hull and “Wilsonianism”—free trade to peace?, passage of RTAA, long-term effects; Welles and non-interventionism—lessons of 1920s, approach to Cuba and Nicaragua, left-wing critique; Gruening and anti-imperialism—reaching out to peace progressives; Puerto Rico as model—original U.S. foreign aid program?; controversies at home and abroad)

2. Transforming the Good Neighbor Policy (from vagueness to precision—casting aside Hull and Gruening, emergence of Welles and Hoover; Mexico: Calles, Cárdenas, and Mexican nationalism; Article 27 and the oil industry; nationalization; splits within the administration—Hull, Daniels, Morganthau; Declarations of Lima, Panama, and Havana; US uniting hemisphere?; role of FBI)

History 308

World War II & Hemispheric Affairs

6 October 2009

I. The Reemergence of Realpolitik

1. The International Environment (European instability: Hitler and Anschluss; path to Munich and effects; Nazi-Soviet Pact and invasion of Poland; fall of France; East Asia—Japanese invasion of China, movement into Vietnam; U.S. public opinion—Nye committee, legacy of World War I, 1940 election & FDR promises)

2. Transforming the Good Neighbor Policy (from vagueness to precision—casting aside Hull and Gruening, emergence of Welles and Hoover—role of FBI; Declarations of Lima, Panama, and Havana; destroyers-for-bases deal; US uniting hemisphere?; FDR and public claims of German threat to South America)

3. The Promises (economic aid; military assistance—role of Brazilians; greater internationalism—OAS and origins of Chapultepec conference; tensions of alliance)

II. The Dilemmas of War

1. Nonintervention (U.S. and southern cone; desire for hemispheric unity; Chilean situation; U.S. and Argentina; what was Argentina’s foreign policy?; emergence of Perón; Braden and Blue Book; Argentine nationalism)

2. Dictators (Atlantic Charter and Allied war aims; democratic rights and U.S. wartime rhetoric; weakening dictators—Guatemala, Cuba; broadening democracy—Ecuador, Costa Rica, Chile, and Popular Front governments; collapse of Vargas regime)

3. The Aftermath (rise and fall of Braden; Truman and origins of Cold War; declining significance of Latin America; collapse of popular front governments, Costa Rican civil war; growth of national security bureaucracy—National Security Act: Dept. of Defense, CIA, JCS, NSA)

The following two (cleverly worded) questions will appear on the midterm one week from today. You’ll have to answer ONE of them. Your answer needs to: (1) answer the question; (2) make] an argument; and (3) use examples from BOTH the reading and the classes.

1. We usually think of the Civil War (1861-1865) as a turning point in U.S. history—certainly on the domestic front. Should historians consider the Civil War a turning point in U.S. relations with Latin America? Compare and contrast the four decades before the Civil War’s start with the four decades that followed its conclusion, being sure to use examples from both the reading and the classes.

2. Some historians argue that a desire for economic expansion provides the primary explanation for U.S. foreign policy toward the hemisphere. Do you agree? Discuss, with reference to three of the following periods: 1800-1826, 1844-1860, 1901-1920, 1933-1945. Be sure to use examples from both the reading and the classes.

History 308

The Cold War and Latin America

8 October 2009

I. The Cold War’s Effects

1. Closing the Democratic Opening (Rio Treaty and beginning of military aid; Venezuelan coup and AD in exile; Costa Rica and Figueres—1948 election and fraud?, peculiarities of Costa Rican political alignments; travails of Caribbean Legion; role of US?)

2. Alternatives? (Welles and redeeming wartime promises; Eleanor Roosevelt and using the UN; Wallace and peaceful co-existence with USSR?; Braden and renewed anti-dictatorial crusade)

3. Militarizing the Cold War (creation of NATO; NSC-68 and the Korean War; decision to build H-bomb; expansion of defense budget; changing role of Mexico; Brazil and US military; making peace with Argentina)

4. The Guatemalan Revolution (Guatemala in Central American history; Ubico, UFCO, and the banana republic; Arévalo presidency and political goals; Arbenz and Guatemalan situation—Indians, land reform)

II. The Eisenhower Years

1. The Guatemalan Coup (Eisenhower and flexible response—role of CIA; detecting Guatemala’s communism; origins of operation PBSUCCESS; Dulles, Caracas Conference, and diplomatic pressure; Castillo Armas and “invasion”; Arbenz resignation; short- and long-term effects)

2. The Decline of Eisenhower (Dulles diplomacy & support for dictators; Humphrey and financial concerns; Nixon to Caracas; problem cases: Trujillo and Galindez assassination; Castro and Cuban revolution)

Midterm is next Tuesday. In addition to one of the essay questions on the previous handout, 10 of the items below will appear on the midterm, and you will be asked to identify AND explain the significance of 7 of them.

Buenaventura Báez UFCO Collamer amendment
Proclamation of 1763 Ostend Manifesto Albert Fall
RTAA Bidlack’s Treaty Josephus Daniels
Robert Lansing Sosúa James Blaine
filibusters Thomas Corwin Article 10
George Canning George Matthews Canadian reciprocity treaty
Declaration of Lima War of the Triple Alliance Ernest Gruening
Pan-American Pact Lazaro Cárdenas Roosevelt Corollary
Article 21 Chaco War Samuel Guy Inman
PL Zimmerman Telegram Getulio Vargas
Touissant L’Ouverture Sumner Welles Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
War of the Pacific Teller amendment Miskito Coast
Spruille Braden Wilmot Proviso Asiento
Edwin Kemmerer Aroostook War Green Shirts
Pancho Villa Jacobo Arbenz Dill amendment

History 308

JFK & Latin America

15     October 2009

I. The United States and the Castro Revolution

1. Castro and Eisenhower (Cuban society in the 1950s—U.S. cultural, economic, strategic influence; weaknesses of Batista regime & triumph of Castro; initial U.S. indecision: is Castro a communist?; crackdown on political, military, diplomatic foes; DDE and sugar quota; Castro and proclamation of socialist beliefs; emigration to United States; Cuba in 1960 presidential campaign; covert operations and origins of Operation Pluto)

2. Bay of Pigs (publicity in interregnum; culture of intelligence and failure of decisionmaking process; Castro anticipation; failure of intervention; Kennedy response; bureaucratic review—Dulles, Bissell resignations; origins of Operation Mongoose)

3. Missile Crisis (the Kennedys and Castro; Cuban value to USSR; Khrushchev as gambler; decision to install missiles; detection by U-2s; ExComm and decision to quarantine; Turkish gambit; denouement of crisis and diplomatic aftermath)

II. The Alliance for Progress

1. The Dominican Problem (the Trujillo lobby and congressional support for regime; Caribbean Legion and persistence of opposition; Galindez affair and growing U.S. concern—role of Congressman Porter; Latin American linkage of Trujllo and Castro—significance of Betancourt; covert operation and coup; instability and path toward Bosch government)

2. The Kennedy Agenda (Rostow and developmental theory—significance of stages, importance of Latin America, complementary with Cold War agenda; Kennedy admiration for Betancourt; early problems: Quadros and Goulart; implementation of aid; question of military assistance; Argentine and Peruvian coups)

History 308

LBJ & Latin America, I

20 October 2009

I. The Dominican Affair

1. The Struggles of the Alliance (Rostow and tensions; instability in the Dominican Republic; emergence of Bosch and Alliance showcase—Caribbean Legion, role of Muñoz Marín; Bosch difficulties in governing and military coup; congressional revolt—significance of Gruening, Kennedy indecision; unresolved policy with assassination)

2. From Kennedy to Johnson (LBJ background: Texas politics and New Deal, 1948 election, politics and foreign policy—McCarthyism, success as Senate majority leader, ethics issues, V-P and disappointments, management of Congress and “can-do” President)

3. The Foreign Aid Revolt (Otto Passman and the Foreign Operations Subcommittee; LBJ dealing and Passman double-dealing; Senate debate and emergence of Gruening amendment; conference committee and Findlay amendment; outcome and long-term significance)

II. The Mann Effect

1. Panama (personnel shifts and end of the Alliance—appointment of Mann; U.S.-Panamanian relations and legacy of colonialism: 1936 treaty and modification of relationship; WWII and increased U.S. military presence; “Zonians” and local tensions; desultory negotiations under Kennedy—flag issue; outbreak of riots; LBJ overreaction; lessons)

2. Cuba (Kennedy death and opportunity for new start?; fishermen’s arrest and domestic politics—Florida; Castro response and domestic politics—Goldwater; internal administration politics—LBJ distrust of Kennedy; crisis mode and isolation of Guantanamo; lessons)

3. Brazil (Kubitschek and flowering of U.S.-Brazilian relations; Quadros and neutralist foreign policy—USSR, Cuba; Quadros resignation and Goulart as president; Brazil and Cuban Missile Crisis—tensions with Kennedy, role of Gordon, IT&T and Hickenlooper amendment; Goulart and Brazilian military; Brazilian & U.S. military ties—role of Vernon Walters; decision for coup; U.S. contingent support; Goulart decision to flee; installation of military regime)

History 308

LBJ & Latin America, II

22 October 2009

I . Vietnam and the Collapse of the Cold War Consensus

1. Foreign Policy and the 1964 Campaign (LBJ & the Lodge dilemma; Goldwater, Vietnam, and the nuclear issue; intersection between domestic politics and foreign policy—Tonkin Gulf Resolution; LBJ’s reflexive anti-communism)

2. Americanization of the War (deterioration of situation in Southeast Asia; political lessons for LBJ; advice from “best and the brightest”—Bundy, McNamara; role of Rusk and JCS; choosing war?; what’s basic goal of US policy in Vietnam?; foreign policy focus on VN)

3. LBJ & the Senate (liberal skepticism about Cold War consensus—Morse, Gruening, and DR; Church, McGovern, and bombing issue; alienation of Fulbright and Senate hearings; position of Senate Republicans; revival of congressional power)

II. Interventionism

1. The Dominican Affair, II (creation of Triumvirate and continued instability; Caamaño uprising; peculiar reporting from Bennett; Triumvirate appeal for U.S. assistance; LBJ fear of Castroite intervention, poor nature of U.S. intelligence; decision to send troops; what’s the rationale for the intervention?; what’s the role of the OAS?; hemispheric reaction and eventual overpowering of Constitutionalists; Fulbright and demise of LBJ-Fulbright relationship; Balaguer triumphant and end of intervention)

2. The U.S. & the Hemispheric Elite (Chile and the Allende threat—CIA covert assistance to Frei; the U.S. and the Brazilian military dictatorship; Punta del Este conference—Senate revolt and failure of attempt to revive the Alliance; Mexico City Olympics—cultural legacies in U.S. & Mexico)

History 308

The Era of Dictators

27 October 2009

I. Richard Nixon and the World

1. 1968 (Tet, Westmoreland, and LBJ campaign; emergence of McCarthy and obstacles; New Hampshire and its effects; LBJ withdrawal; differences between RFK and McCarthy; Humphrey and distancing from LBJ—Salt Lake City speech; LBJ attitude; Vietnam and outcome; Nixon, Chennault, and dirty tricks; legacy)

2. Background (Nixon and Cold War; Vice President experience; the postwar statesman; Six Crises; 1964 campaign and revival of GOP; 1968 campaign and Silent Majority; Nixon and Congress; RN as polarizing figure; the issues: Vietnam and Paris peace talks, role of PRC, tensions in Middle East, Brezhnev Doctrine and freezing of Cold War)

3.  Transforming International Affairs (opening to China and triumph of realpolitik; détente and Soviet Union—path to SALT I; Vietnamization—from “peace with honor” to a “decent interval”; difficulties with Congress, domestic opposition)

4. The Shadow of the Cold War (Cambodia invasion and constitutional crisis; Cambodia and US public opinion; Cooper-Church and congressional revolt; McGovern-Hatfield)

II. A Militarized Hemisphere

1. Chile and the 40 Committee (Kissinger and international credibility—international relations as chessboard; Frei presidency and collapse of center-right alliance—Tomic candidacy; significance of Kissinger staff and decline of CIA; covert aid to Allesandri; Allende victory and Christian Democrats’ response; U.S. and Chilean military—attempted coup, Schneider assassination, Congress ratifies Allende’s election)

2. The Coup (Allende and making the economy scream; covert operations and ties to military; role of CIA; Brazil and Chilean connection—Nixon-Medici meeting, U.S. and Brazilian military, cooperation against Cuba?, secret contacts; polarization of Chilean politics and decision for coup; Pinochet takeover and Allende suicide)

3. The Aftermath (human rights abuses—crackdown on Chilean communists, leftists, intellectuals; murder of Charles Horman [Missing], National Stadium internments; international response; congressional response—role of Ted Kennedy and Donald Fraser, Michael Harrington and release of classified information; 1973 hearings, passage of Kennedy-Fraser amendments; Pinochet and “Chicago Boys”)

History 308

The Cold War Returns to the Hemisphere

3 November 2009

I. Nicaragua and the Revival of the Right

1. Beyond Somoza (triumph of Sandinistas and legacy of Nicaragua-U.S. distrust; uncertainties with Sandinistas—attempt for aid, role of Helms, El Salvador rebellion, Cold War to Central America; did Carter have a policy?)

2. The 1980 Election (Somoza and the Shah—part of a broader pattern?; significance of Kirkpatrick article; repeal of Hughes-Ryan; Reagan nomination and overcoming weaknesses; Clark amendment and GOP platform; smashing GOP win—presidency, Senate; part of international pattern?—Thatcher in Britain, Kohl in West Germany)

II. The Reagan Agenda

1. National Security (personnel: Weinberger and defense buildup; Haig and hard-line anti-communism; Kirkpatrick and new approach toward Third World; role of Casey and renewed prominence of CIA; Helms and Foreign Relations Committee—outreach to Chile, Argentina, South Africa; tilt toward Executive Power: Bingham amendment and initial administration battle—AWACS sale; significance of Jepsen; final Senate vote; RR speechmaking—“evil empire” speech)

2. El Salvador (FMLN strength in transition period; right-wing death squads and assassination of Archbishop Romero; ending human rights diplomacy—dismissal of Ambassador White; limits of Reagan agenda—congressional resistance to ARENA, certification requirement and conditional aid; D’Aubbuison candidacy and U.S. search for alternative; CIA limits of Cold War appeal—Beard campaign against Sasser)

3. The Falklands War (Argentina’s “dirty war”—internal instability in Galtieri regime, popular unrest, economic difficulties, playing to nationalism?; prewar diplomacy—Haig and peculiar promises to Galtieri, Reagan-Thatcher relationship; decision to invade and initial British surrender; poor Argentine coordination; British reaction; effects: strengthening of Thatcher, collapse of military regime in Argentina)

4. Grenada and Weakening the War Powers Act (Americans at medical school, leftist regime and fear of Castro threat, New Jewel movement and Bishop assassination; Beirut barracks—suicide murder attack; OECS fig leaf and decision to intervene, media and political effects—“lovely little war”; diplomatic effects—UN resolution, British opposition)

History 308

Beyond the Cold War

10 November 2009

I. The Bush I Years

I.  Panama (Bush and the 1988 campaign—popular image, foreign policy background; Noriega and CIA—contra war, money-laundering, drug issue; deterioration of relationship; Endara campaign and Noriega de facto coup; Bush decision to intervene; military success and failure to anticipate looting; Noriega, the Vatican embassy, and ultimate surrender; trial; regional and international condemnation; long-term effects)

2. The Canadian Free Trade Agreement (Reagan’s foreign economic agenda; decline of unions—Mondale nomination and aftermath of 1984 campaign, creation of DLC; Liberal setback, Mulroney and Canadian domestic politics; Reciprocity agreement, Auto Pact, path to negotiation; Canadian opposition—Liberals and New Democrats; Canadian election, divided opposition, Mulroney victory; U.S. reaction: Reagan and fast track, minimal public position; long-term effects: decline of Progressive Conservatives, expansion of U.S.-Canadian trade)

3. The Haitian Affair (Haiti after the U.S. intervention: Vincent and the betrayal of the Union Patriotique, emergence of Duvalier dictatorship, from Papa Doc to Baby Doc, power of secret police; emergence of Aristide—Liberation theology, political activism, expulsion  from order; election and chaos as president—1991 Cédras coup; hemispheric response: Costa Rica, Venezuela; international response: U.N. sanctions; U.S. response: Bush administration & realism (Yugoslavia breakup), fear of refugees and domestic politics)

II. The Clinton Agenda

1. From FTA to NAFTA (changing nature of PRI: economic liberalization and Salinas-era Mexico; Maastricht Treaty and international environment; 1992 negotiations; Perot and domestic opposition; changing of the guard—Chrétien, Clinton; the Clinton economic team: Bentsen, Rubin, Summers; Perot-Gore debate; labor and 1994 midterms; effects: expansion of maquiladoras, U.S. reality and image)

2. Return of Aristide (Haiti in 1992 campaign; Clinton and Haiti—personal and ideological connections; role of Congressional Black Caucus; Clinton and the military—Vietnam legacy, role of Powell, debate over gays in military; indecision: continuing embargo, blocking of refugees [difference between Cubans and Haitians]; concern over possible loss of life; Governor’s Island Agreement and military backtracking; UN authorization; initial intervention and decision to pull out; Cédras resignation and Aristide returns; GOP opposition and lack of aid; disputes over Aristide term and renewed instability)

History 308

Inter-American Relations to the Contemporary Era

12 November 2009

I. Inter-American Relations from Clinton to Bush

1. Return of Aristide (Haiti in 1992 campaign; Clinton and Haiti—personal and ideological connections; role of Congressional Black Caucus; Clinton and the military—Vietnam legacy, role of Powell, debate over gays in military; indecision: continuing embargo, blocking of refugees [difference between Cubans and Haitians]; concern over possible loss of life; Governor’s Island Agreement and military backtracking; UN authorization; initial intervention and decision to pull out; Cédras resignation and Aristide returns; GOP opposition and lack of aid; disputes over Aristide term and renewed instability)

2. Clinton & Cuba (end of Cold War and state of relationship: human rights, domestic politics, bureaucratic atrophy; mild openings: academics, financial remissions; Canada and Western Europe; origins of Gonzalez affair: tension between family rights and Cuban refugees policies; Reno and coordination of response; Republicans, Cuban Lobby, and media circus; propaganda and return; political effects on Florida—Cuban-Americans and Miami politics)

3. The Bush Agenda (Bush and Texas politics—Texas-Mexico links; Mexico and decline of PRI—emergence of Fox and opening to U.S.; use of Mexico to bolster Bush foreign policy credentials; expectations after 2000)

II. The Bush Agenda

1. Venezuela & Chavez (Venezuela as the model democracy: decline and fall of liberal democracy; Chavez coup and instability; Chavez and rise to political power; 2002 coup and indecisive U.S. approach; international oil prices and unintentional effects of U.S. policies; Chavez and use of Bush as rhetorical foil; Venezuelan outreach to Cuba—financial subsidies, diplomatic support; the Bolivarian bloc—Morales, return of Ortega; role of Venezuela in U.S. policy)

2. The Drug War (Nixon administration and origins of policy; Reagan expansion; Bennett as drug czar; regional diplomacy and domestic political effects; destabilization of Colombian politics; Plan Colombia: from Clinton to Bush; Uribe and consolidation of Colombian-U.S. alliance; political polarization in U.S.—Democratic suspicion of Uribe, Medal of Honor from Bush)

3. Expanding Free Trade (Bush and neoliberal world agenda; Chilean free trade pact; from CAFTA to DR-CAFTA: Bush and reestablishment of fast-track authority; expansion into Peru?)

4. Immigration (Latin American immigration and changing nature of U.S. society; Bush and immigration reform—economic issues, Rove and political concerns; grassroots resistance, role of Lou Dobbs, rebirth of right-wing populism; long-term fate?)

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